Objective: We sought to analyze the safety and feasibility of elective sonolucent cranioplasty in the setting of extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery to monitor bypass patency using ultrasound. Methods: Patients who underwent direct EC-IC bypass surgery agreed to sonolucent cranioplasty at the time of surgery and received a sonolucent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implant. Besides monitoring clinical outcome, all patients received transcranioplasty ultrasound (TCUS) on postoperative day 1 and at last follow-up. In addition, bypass patency was confirmed using catheter angiogram and fit of implant using computed tomography. Patient-rated outcome was assessed through phone questionnaire. Results: EC-IC bypass surgery with PMMA cranioplasty was successful in all 7 patients with patent bypasses on postoperative angiogram. Direct TCUS was feasible in all patients, and bypass patency was monitored. There were no complications such as postoperative hemorrhagic/ischemic complications related to the bypass procedure in this patient population, as well as no complications related to the PMMA implant. Postoperative computed tomography showed favorable cosmetic results of the PMMA implant in both the pterional area for superficial temporal artery−middle cerebral artery bypasses and parietooccipital area for occipital artery−middle cerebral artery bypasses as confirmed by high-rated overall patient satisfaction with favorable cosmetic, pain, and sensory patient-rated outcomes. Conclusions: In this study we were able to show that this novel technique is safe, allows for patency assessment of the EC-IC bypass using bedside TCUS technique, and is cosmetically satisfying for patients.
- Extracranial-to-intracranial bypass
- Real-time ultrasound monitoring
- Sonolucent cranioplasty
- Transcranioplasty ultrasound
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology