Sand Fly Saliva Enhances Leishmania amazonensis Infection by Modulating Interleukin-10 Production

Nilufer B. Norsworthy, Jiaren Sun, Dia Elnaiem, Gregory Lanzaro, Lynn Soong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

After transmission through the bite of female sand flies, Leishmania spp. can cause a broad spectrum of disease manifestations collectively known as leishmaniases. L. amazonensis is endemic in South America, where it causes cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. In this study, we have provided evidence that salivary gland extracts (SGE) of Lutzomyia longipalpis enhances L. amazonensis infection. BALB/c mice infected intradermally in the ear with 105 metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis together with SGE (equivalent to 0.5 gland) showed an early onset of disease and larger lesions that contained ∼3-log-units more parasites than did controls. To determine the potential mechanism underlying this enhancement, we assessed cytokine production via reverse transcriptase PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mice coinjected with parasites and SGE displayed higher levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in the ear tissues, as well as higher levels of IL-10 in supernatants of restimulated draining lymph node (LN) cells, than did controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed high frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining LN of mice coinjected with the parasite and SGE. In addition, we examined bone marrow derived-macrophage cultures and detected increased IL-10 but decreased nitric oxide (NO) production in cells exposed to SGE prior to infection with L. amazonensis. Together, these results imply that the sand fly saliva facilitates Leishmania evasion of the host immune system by modulating IL-10 production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1240-1247
Number of pages8
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume72
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2004

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Psychodidae
Leishmania
Salivary Glands
Saliva
Interleukin-10
Infection
Ear
Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Parasites
Lymph Nodes
Communicable Disease Control
Visceral Leishmaniasis
South America
Bites and Stings
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Immune System
Nitric Oxide
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Macrophages
Cytokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Sand Fly Saliva Enhances Leishmania amazonensis Infection by Modulating Interleukin-10 Production. / Norsworthy, Nilufer B.; Sun, Jiaren; Elnaiem, Dia; Lanzaro, Gregory; Soong, Lynn.

In: Infection and Immunity, Vol. 72, No. 3, 03.2004, p. 1240-1247.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Norsworthy, Nilufer B. ; Sun, Jiaren ; Elnaiem, Dia ; Lanzaro, Gregory ; Soong, Lynn. / Sand Fly Saliva Enhances Leishmania amazonensis Infection by Modulating Interleukin-10 Production. In: Infection and Immunity. 2004 ; Vol. 72, No. 3. pp. 1240-1247.
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