BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and dynapenia have been associated with poorer physical performance, disability and death. The aim of this study was to compare the association between sarcopenia and dynapenia with mortality.
METHODS: We studied 1,149 Brazilians aged 60 years or older residing in São Paulo. Sarcopenia was defined according to the consensus of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), which includes three components: low muscle mass (LMM) assessed by skeletal muscle mass index ≤ 8.90kg/m2 (men) and ≤ 6.37kg/m2 (women); low muscle strength (LMS) assessed by handgrip strength <30kg (men) and < 20kg (women); and low physical performance (LPP) assessed by walking speed ≤ 0.8m/s. Diagnosis of sarcopenia required presence of LMM plus LMS or LPP. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength < 30kg (men) and < 20kg (women). Covariates included socio-demographic and behavioral variables, medical conditions, hospitalization, depressive symptoms, cognition, and disability in activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living. The outcome was all-cause mortality over five-year follow-up.
RESULTS: During the five-year follow-up, 187 subjects died. The mortality rate for those with or without sarcopenia were 65.9/1,000 person/years and 20.1/1,000 person/years and for dynapenia were 44.3/1,000 person/years and 14.9/1,000 person/years. The adjusted model showed that sarcopenia (HR=1.52, 95%CI: 1.06 - 2.19) and dynapenia (HR=2.04, 95%CI: 1.24 - 3.37) are independent risk factors for death.
CONCLUSIONS: The EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia and dynapenia can help to determine risk for mortality and can be used as a screening instrument in public health.
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