Segregation and racial disparities in post-stop outcomes: insights from New York City

Yunhan Zhao, Tse Chuan Yang, Steven F. Messner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This research assesses the relationships of five dimensions of racial segregation with the likelihood of being subject to frisk, search, police force, and arrest in New York City. Specifically, we attempt to answer the following research questions: (1) Does segregation affect post-stop policing outcomes for blacks and Hispanics? (2) If the answer to the first question is positive, which dimension of segregation matters? (3) Is the relationship between segregation and policing outcomes moderated by neighborhoods’ racial/ethnic composition? Using the stop-and-frisk data published by the New York Police Department and census tract level socio-demographic data from various sources, we conducted negative binomial regressions to explore research questions. Results suggest that the association of segregation with policing outcomes is not uniform and it differs by segregation dimension, race of suspects, and the particular outcome studied. Generally, segregation increases the odds of the studied policing outcomes, making blacks and Hispanics more vulnerable during police contacts. Additionally, mixed moderation effects were found. This paper strongly indicates that segregation should be seriously considered in policing studies and each dimension is worthy of being examined individually.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-381
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Crime and Justice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 8 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Policing
  • race and ethnicity
  • segregation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Law


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