Self-reported reproductive outcomes among male and female 1991 Gulf War era US military veterans

Timothy S. Wells, Linda Z. Wang, Christina N. Spooner, Tyler C. Smith, Katia M. Hiliopoulos, Deborah R. Kamens, Gregory C. Gray, Paul A. Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: Following the 1991 Gulf War, some veterans expressed concerns regarding their reproductive health. Our objective was to assess whether an association exists between deployment to the 1991 Gulf War and self-reported adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Using a modified Dillman technique with telephone follow-up, we conducted a survey via a postal questionnaire from February 1996-August 1997 to compare selected reproductive outcomes among 10,000 US veterans deployed to the 1991 Gulf War with those of 10,000 nondeployed Gulf War era veterans. Results: A total of 8742 individuals responded to the survey, a response rate of 51 percent. Using multivariable analyses, results showed no differences in number of reported pregnancies between Gulf War veterans and nondeployed veterans. Among 2233 female and 2159 male participants, there were no differences in birth weight of infants born to Gulf War veterans compared with nondeployed Gulf War era veterans. In multivariable models, male and female Gulf War veterans did not significantly differ in risk for ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, or miscarriages when compared with nondeployed veterans of the same era. Conclusions: These results do not suggest an association between service in the 1991 Gulf War and adverse reproductive outcomes for both male and female veterans during the 4 years after the war.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-510
Number of pages10
JournalMaternal and child health journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Birth weight
  • Gulf War
  • Military
  • Reproductive outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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