Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer: Impact of the number of sentinel nodes removed on the false-negative rate

S. L. Wong, M. J. Edwards, Celia Chao, T. M. Tuttle, R. D. Noyes, D. J. Carlson, P. B. Cerrito, K. M. McMasters, M. Morrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

161 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared with injection of blue dye alone. We hypothesized that this may be from the increased ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether removal of multiple SLNs results in a lower false negative rate. STUDY DESIGN: The University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study is a prospective multiinstitutional study. Patients with clinical stage T1-2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for enrollment. All patients underwent SLN biopsy using blue dye alone, radioactive colloid alone, or both agents in combination, followed by completion level I and II axillary dissection. RESULTS: A total of 1,436 patients were enrolled in the study from August 1997 to February 2000. SLNs were identified in 1,287 patients (90%), with an overall false negative rate of 8.3%. A single SLN was removed in 537 patients. Multiple SLNs were removed in 750 patients. The false negative rates were 14.3% and 4.3% for patients with a single sentinel node versus multiple sentinel nodes removed, respectively (p = 0.0004, chi-square). Logistic regression analysis revealed that use of blue dye injection alone was the only factor independently associated with identification of a single SLN (p < 0.0001), and patient age, tumor size, tumor location, surgeon's previous experience, and type of operation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes, when they exist, improves the diagnostic accuracy of SLN biopsy. Injection of radioactive colloid in combination with blue dye improves the ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes compared with the use of blue dye alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)684-691
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume192
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
Breast Neoplasms
Coloring Agents
Colloids
Injections
cyhalothrin
Dissection
Neoplasms
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Prospective Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer : Impact of the number of sentinel nodes removed on the false-negative rate. / Wong, S. L.; Edwards, M. J.; Chao, Celia; Tuttle, T. M.; Noyes, R. D.; Carlson, D. J.; Cerrito, P. B.; McMasters, K. M.; Morrow, M.

In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 192, No. 6, 2001, p. 684-691.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wong, S. L. ; Edwards, M. J. ; Chao, Celia ; Tuttle, T. M. ; Noyes, R. D. ; Carlson, D. J. ; Cerrito, P. B. ; McMasters, K. M. ; Morrow, M. / Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer : Impact of the number of sentinel nodes removed on the false-negative rate. In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2001 ; Vol. 192, No. 6. pp. 684-691.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared with injection of blue dye alone. We hypothesized that this may be from the increased ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether removal of multiple SLNs results in a lower false negative rate. STUDY DESIGN: The University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study is a prospective multiinstitutional study. Patients with clinical stage T1-2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for enrollment. All patients underwent SLN biopsy using blue dye alone, radioactive colloid alone, or both agents in combination, followed by completion level I and II axillary dissection. RESULTS: A total of 1,436 patients were enrolled in the study from August 1997 to February 2000. SLNs were identified in 1,287 patients (90{\%}), with an overall false negative rate of 8.3{\%}. A single SLN was removed in 537 patients. Multiple SLNs were removed in 750 patients. The false negative rates were 14.3{\%} and 4.3{\%} for patients with a single sentinel node versus multiple sentinel nodes removed, respectively (p = 0.0004, chi-square). Logistic regression analysis revealed that use of blue dye injection alone was the only factor independently associated with identification of a single SLN (p < 0.0001), and patient age, tumor size, tumor location, surgeon's previous experience, and type of operation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes, when they exist, improves the diagnostic accuracy of SLN biopsy. Injection of radioactive colloid in combination with blue dye improves the ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes compared with the use of blue dye alone.",
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T2 - Impact of the number of sentinel nodes removed on the false-negative rate

AU - Wong, S. L.

AU - Edwards, M. J.

AU - Chao, Celia

AU - Tuttle, T. M.

AU - Noyes, R. D.

AU - Carlson, D. J.

AU - Cerrito, P. B.

AU - McMasters, K. M.

AU - Morrow, M.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared with injection of blue dye alone. We hypothesized that this may be from the increased ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether removal of multiple SLNs results in a lower false negative rate. STUDY DESIGN: The University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study is a prospective multiinstitutional study. Patients with clinical stage T1-2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for enrollment. All patients underwent SLN biopsy using blue dye alone, radioactive colloid alone, or both agents in combination, followed by completion level I and II axillary dissection. RESULTS: A total of 1,436 patients were enrolled in the study from August 1997 to February 2000. SLNs were identified in 1,287 patients (90%), with an overall false negative rate of 8.3%. A single SLN was removed in 537 patients. Multiple SLNs were removed in 750 patients. The false negative rates were 14.3% and 4.3% for patients with a single sentinel node versus multiple sentinel nodes removed, respectively (p = 0.0004, chi-square). Logistic regression analysis revealed that use of blue dye injection alone was the only factor independently associated with identification of a single SLN (p < 0.0001), and patient age, tumor size, tumor location, surgeon's previous experience, and type of operation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes, when they exist, improves the diagnostic accuracy of SLN biopsy. Injection of radioactive colloid in combination with blue dye improves the ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes compared with the use of blue dye alone.

AB - BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared with injection of blue dye alone. We hypothesized that this may be from the increased ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether removal of multiple SLNs results in a lower false negative rate. STUDY DESIGN: The University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study is a prospective multiinstitutional study. Patients with clinical stage T1-2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for enrollment. All patients underwent SLN biopsy using blue dye alone, radioactive colloid alone, or both agents in combination, followed by completion level I and II axillary dissection. RESULTS: A total of 1,436 patients were enrolled in the study from August 1997 to February 2000. SLNs were identified in 1,287 patients (90%), with an overall false negative rate of 8.3%. A single SLN was removed in 537 patients. Multiple SLNs were removed in 750 patients. The false negative rates were 14.3% and 4.3% for patients with a single sentinel node versus multiple sentinel nodes removed, respectively (p = 0.0004, chi-square). Logistic regression analysis revealed that use of blue dye injection alone was the only factor independently associated with identification of a single SLN (p < 0.0001), and patient age, tumor size, tumor location, surgeon's previous experience, and type of operation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes, when they exist, improves the diagnostic accuracy of SLN biopsy. Injection of radioactive colloid in combination with blue dye improves the ability to identify multiple sentinel nodes compared with the use of blue dye alone.

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