Sequencing of protease inhibitor therapy: Insights from an analysis of HIV phenotypic resistance in patients failing protease inhibitors

California Collaborative Treatment Group #575 Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Objective: To characterize the pattern of HIV-1 susceptibility to protease inhibitors in patients failing an initial protease inhibitor-containing regimen. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral susceptibility. Setting: HIV clinics in six metropolitan areas. Patients: Eighty-eight HIV-infected adults with HIV RNA > 400 copies/ml after > 6 months of antiretroviral therapy, including the use of one protease inhibitor for < 3 months. Measurements: The frequency and magnitude of decreased susceptibility, measured with a phenotypic assay using recombinant constructs, to five protease inhibitors. Decreased susceptibility was defined as > 2.5-fold increase in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared with drug sensitive control virus. Results: At study entry, patients were being treated with nelfinavir (63%), indinavir (25%), or another protease inhibitor (11%). HIV isolates from these patients were susceptible (fold change > 2.5) to all five protease inhibitors in 18% of patients and to none in 8%. Isolates from patients receiving nelfinavir were less likely to have reduced susceptibility to other protease inhibitors than isolates from patients treated with indinavir (P < 0.001) or one of the other three agents (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for the duration of prior protease inhibitor use. Reduced susceptibility to saquinavir and amprenavir was observed significantly less frequently than for the other protease inhibitors. Conclusion: The frequency of protease inhibitor cross-resistance and the magnitude of changes in susceptibility varied according to the initial protease inhibitor used in the failing treatment regimen. Significantly less protease inhibitor cross-resistance was demonstrated for isolates from patients failing a nelfinavir-containing regimen compared with those from patients receiving other protease inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-615
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 30 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiretroviral resistance
  • HIV-1
  • Phenotypic assay
  • Protease inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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