Serological evidence of flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Livestock and Wildlife in Trinidad

Nadin N. Thompson, Albert J. Auguste, Dane Coombs, Bradley J. Blitvich, Christine V.F. Carrington, Amelia P.Travassos Da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Dave D. Chadee, Michael A. Drebot, Robert B. Tesh, Scott C. Weaver, Abiodun A. Adesiyun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Seroprevalence rates of selected arboviruses in animal populations in Trinidad were determined using serum samples collected between 2006 and 2009 from horses (n=506), cattle (n=163), sheep (n=198), goats (n=82), pigs (n=184), birds (n=140), rodents (n=116), and other vertebrates (n=23). The sera were screened for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), Ilheus virus (ILHV), Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), using hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) and epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Antibodies to SLEV were detected in a total of 49 (9.7%) horses, 8 (4.9%) cattle, 1 (1.2%) goat, 2 (1.4%) wild birds, and 3 (2.2%) wild rodents by both methods. In contrast, antibodies to EEEV, VEEV, and WNV were detected only in horses, at rates of 4.3%, 0.8%, and 17.2%, respectively, by ELISA, and IgM capture ELISA was WNV-positive in 3 (0.6%) of these sera. Among locally bred unvaccinated horses that had never left Trinidad, seroprevalence rates against WNV were 12.1% and 17.2% by ELISA and HIA, respectively. The presence of WNV- and SLEV-specific antibodies in a representative sample of horse sera that were both ELISA- and HIA-seropositive was confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Antibodies to ILHV and BSQV were not detected in any of the serum samples tested (i.e., sera from horses, other livestock, and wild birds in the case of ILHV, and wild mammals in the case of BSQV). The data indicate the presence of WNV in Trinidad, and continuing low-level circulation of SLEV, EEEV, and VEEV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-978
Number of pages10
JournalVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2012


  • Alphavirus
  • Arbovirus
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus
  • Flavivirus
  • Seroprevalence
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus
  • Trinidad
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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