Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07

Scott Medlin, Eleanor R. Deardorff, Christopher S. Hanley, Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Asia Siudak-Campfield, Rebecca Dallwig, Amelia Travassos Da Rosa, Robert B. Tesh, Maria Pia Martin, Scott Weaver, Christopher Vaughan, Oscar Ramirez, Kurt K. Sladky, Joanne Paul-Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)883-892
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
Volume52
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

Costa Rica
antibody
pathogen
virus
antibodies
pathogens
encephalitis
arboviruses
viruses
seroprevalence
cross reaction
Phlebovirus
California encephalitis virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Vesiculovirus
horses
Choloepus hoffmanni
Bradypus variegatus
land management
domestic animals

Keywords

  • Arbovirus
  • Bradypus variegatus
  • Choloepus hoffmanni
  • Serology
  • Sloth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07. / Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B.; Martin, Maria Pia; Weaver, Scott; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne.

In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 52, No. 4, 01.10.2016, p. 883-892.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Medlin, S, Deardorff, ER, Hanley, CS, Vergneau-Grosset, C, Siudak-Campfield, A, Dallwig, R, Da Rosa, AT, Tesh, RB, Martin, MP, Weaver, S, Vaughan, C, Ramirez, O, Sladky, KK & Paul-Murphy, J 2016, 'Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07', Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 883-892. https://doi.org/10.7589/2015-02-040
Medlin, Scott ; Deardorff, Eleanor R. ; Hanley, Christopher S. ; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire ; Siudak-Campfield, Asia ; Dallwig, Rebecca ; Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Martin, Maria Pia ; Weaver, Scott ; Vaughan, Christopher ; Ramirez, Oscar ; Sladky, Kurt K. ; Paul-Murphy, Joanne. / Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07. In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2016 ; Vol. 52, No. 4. pp. 883-892.
@article{185eb39dafc7408ea54bf8755f4dcc42,
title = "Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07",
abstract = "We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80{\%} of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67{\%} had antibodies to ILHV, 32{\%} to Punta Toro virus, 30{\%} to Changuinola virus, 15{\%} to WNV, 14{\%} to VSV, 11{\%} to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10{\%} to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.",
keywords = "Arbovirus, Bradypus variegatus, Choloepus hoffmanni, Serology, Sloth",
author = "Scott Medlin and Deardorff, {Eleanor R.} and Hanley, {Christopher S.} and Claire Vergneau-Grosset and Asia Siudak-Campfield and Rebecca Dallwig and {Da Rosa}, {Amelia Travassos} and Tesh, {Robert B.} and Martin, {Maria Pia} and Scott Weaver and Christopher Vaughan and Oscar Ramirez and Sladky, {Kurt K.} and Joanne Paul-Murphy",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.7589/2015-02-040",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "52",
pages = "883--892",
journal = "Journal of Wildlife Diseases",
issn = "0090-3558",
publisher = "Wildlife Disease Association, Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in freeranging, two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in Costa Rica, 2005–07

AU - Medlin, Scott

AU - Deardorff, Eleanor R.

AU - Hanley, Christopher S.

AU - Vergneau-Grosset, Claire

AU - Siudak-Campfield, Asia

AU - Dallwig, Rebecca

AU - Da Rosa, Amelia Travassos

AU - Tesh, Robert B.

AU - Martin, Maria Pia

AU - Weaver, Scott

AU - Vaughan, Christopher

AU - Ramirez, Oscar

AU - Sladky, Kurt K.

AU - Paul-Murphy, Joanne

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.

AB - We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.

KW - Arbovirus

KW - Bradypus variegatus

KW - Choloepus hoffmanni

KW - Serology

KW - Sloth

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84991042648&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84991042648&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.7589/2015-02-040

DO - 10.7589/2015-02-040

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 883

EP - 892

JO - Journal of Wildlife Diseases

JF - Journal of Wildlife Diseases

SN - 0090-3558

IS - 4

ER -