Simple repetitive sequences in the genome

Structure and functional significance

S. K. Brahmachari, G. Meera, Partha Sarkar, P. Balagurumoorthy, J. Tripathi, S. Raghavan, U. Shaligram, S. Pataskar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The current explosion of DNA sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that noncoding repetitive DNA sequences present within and around different genes could play an important role in genetic control processes, although the precise role and mechanism by which these sequences function are poorly understood. Several of the simple repetitive sequences which occur in a large number of loci throughout the human and other eukaryotic genomes satisfy the sequence criteria for forming non-B DNA structures in vitro. We have summarized some of the features of three different types of simple repeats that highlight the importance of repetitive DNA in the control of gene expression and chromatin organization. (i) (TG/CA)(n) repeats are widespread and conserved in many loci. These sequences are associated with nucleosomes of varying linker length and may play a role in chromatin organization. These Z-potential sequences can help absorb superhelical stress during transcription and aid in recombination. (ii) Human telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(n) adopts a novel quadruplex structure and exhibits unusual chromatin organization. This unusual structural motif could explain chromosome pairing and stability. (iii) Intragenic amplification of (CTG)((n))/(CAG)((n)) trinucleotide repeat, which is now known to be associated with several genetic disorders, could down-regulate gene expression in vivo. The overall implications of these findings vis-a-vis repetitive sequences in the genome are summarized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1705-1714
Number of pages10
JournalElectrophoresis
Volume16
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Microsatellite Repeats
Chromatin
Genes
Nucleic Acid Repetitive Sequences
DNA sequences
Genome
Gene expression
Genetic Phenomena
Chromosome Pairing
Trinucleotide Repeats
Gene Expression
Chromosomal Instability
Inborn Genetic Diseases
Explosions
Nucleosomes
DNA
Transcription
Chromosomes
Genetic Recombination
Amplification

Keywords

  • Genome
  • Nucleosome
  • Repetitive DNA
  • Telomere
  • Triplet repeat
  • Z-DNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Brahmachari, S. K., Meera, G., Sarkar, P., Balagurumoorthy, P., Tripathi, J., Raghavan, S., ... Pataskar, S. (1995). Simple repetitive sequences in the genome: Structure and functional significance. Electrophoresis, 16(9), 1705-1714.

Simple repetitive sequences in the genome : Structure and functional significance. / Brahmachari, S. K.; Meera, G.; Sarkar, Partha; Balagurumoorthy, P.; Tripathi, J.; Raghavan, S.; Shaligram, U.; Pataskar, S.

In: Electrophoresis, Vol. 16, No. 9, 1995, p. 1705-1714.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brahmachari, SK, Meera, G, Sarkar, P, Balagurumoorthy, P, Tripathi, J, Raghavan, S, Shaligram, U & Pataskar, S 1995, 'Simple repetitive sequences in the genome: Structure and functional significance', Electrophoresis, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1705-1714.
Brahmachari SK, Meera G, Sarkar P, Balagurumoorthy P, Tripathi J, Raghavan S et al. Simple repetitive sequences in the genome: Structure and functional significance. Electrophoresis. 1995;16(9):1705-1714.
Brahmachari, S. K. ; Meera, G. ; Sarkar, Partha ; Balagurumoorthy, P. ; Tripathi, J. ; Raghavan, S. ; Shaligram, U. ; Pataskar, S. / Simple repetitive sequences in the genome : Structure and functional significance. In: Electrophoresis. 1995 ; Vol. 16, No. 9. pp. 1705-1714.
@article{7ed6c0b2dc14467d9866ea8fce12b9c0,
title = "Simple repetitive sequences in the genome: Structure and functional significance",
abstract = "The current explosion of DNA sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that noncoding repetitive DNA sequences present within and around different genes could play an important role in genetic control processes, although the precise role and mechanism by which these sequences function are poorly understood. Several of the simple repetitive sequences which occur in a large number of loci throughout the human and other eukaryotic genomes satisfy the sequence criteria for forming non-B DNA structures in vitro. We have summarized some of the features of three different types of simple repeats that highlight the importance of repetitive DNA in the control of gene expression and chromatin organization. (i) (TG/CA)(n) repeats are widespread and conserved in many loci. These sequences are associated with nucleosomes of varying linker length and may play a role in chromatin organization. These Z-potential sequences can help absorb superhelical stress during transcription and aid in recombination. (ii) Human telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(n) adopts a novel quadruplex structure and exhibits unusual chromatin organization. This unusual structural motif could explain chromosome pairing and stability. (iii) Intragenic amplification of (CTG)((n))/(CAG)((n)) trinucleotide repeat, which is now known to be associated with several genetic disorders, could down-regulate gene expression in vivo. The overall implications of these findings vis-a-vis repetitive sequences in the genome are summarized.",
keywords = "Genome, Nucleosome, Repetitive DNA, Telomere, Triplet repeat, Z-DNA",
author = "Brahmachari, {S. K.} and G. Meera and Partha Sarkar and P. Balagurumoorthy and J. Tripathi and S. Raghavan and U. Shaligram and S. Pataskar",
year = "1995",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "1705--1714",
journal = "Electrophoresis",
issn = "0173-0835",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH Verlag",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Simple repetitive sequences in the genome

T2 - Structure and functional significance

AU - Brahmachari, S. K.

AU - Meera, G.

AU - Sarkar, Partha

AU - Balagurumoorthy, P.

AU - Tripathi, J.

AU - Raghavan, S.

AU - Shaligram, U.

AU - Pataskar, S.

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - The current explosion of DNA sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that noncoding repetitive DNA sequences present within and around different genes could play an important role in genetic control processes, although the precise role and mechanism by which these sequences function are poorly understood. Several of the simple repetitive sequences which occur in a large number of loci throughout the human and other eukaryotic genomes satisfy the sequence criteria for forming non-B DNA structures in vitro. We have summarized some of the features of three different types of simple repeats that highlight the importance of repetitive DNA in the control of gene expression and chromatin organization. (i) (TG/CA)(n) repeats are widespread and conserved in many loci. These sequences are associated with nucleosomes of varying linker length and may play a role in chromatin organization. These Z-potential sequences can help absorb superhelical stress during transcription and aid in recombination. (ii) Human telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(n) adopts a novel quadruplex structure and exhibits unusual chromatin organization. This unusual structural motif could explain chromosome pairing and stability. (iii) Intragenic amplification of (CTG)((n))/(CAG)((n)) trinucleotide repeat, which is now known to be associated with several genetic disorders, could down-regulate gene expression in vivo. The overall implications of these findings vis-a-vis repetitive sequences in the genome are summarized.

AB - The current explosion of DNA sequence information has generated increasing evidence for the claim that noncoding repetitive DNA sequences present within and around different genes could play an important role in genetic control processes, although the precise role and mechanism by which these sequences function are poorly understood. Several of the simple repetitive sequences which occur in a large number of loci throughout the human and other eukaryotic genomes satisfy the sequence criteria for forming non-B DNA structures in vitro. We have summarized some of the features of three different types of simple repeats that highlight the importance of repetitive DNA in the control of gene expression and chromatin organization. (i) (TG/CA)(n) repeats are widespread and conserved in many loci. These sequences are associated with nucleosomes of varying linker length and may play a role in chromatin organization. These Z-potential sequences can help absorb superhelical stress during transcription and aid in recombination. (ii) Human telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(n) adopts a novel quadruplex structure and exhibits unusual chromatin organization. This unusual structural motif could explain chromosome pairing and stability. (iii) Intragenic amplification of (CTG)((n))/(CAG)((n)) trinucleotide repeat, which is now known to be associated with several genetic disorders, could down-regulate gene expression in vivo. The overall implications of these findings vis-a-vis repetitive sequences in the genome are summarized.

KW - Genome

KW - Nucleosome

KW - Repetitive DNA

KW - Telomere

KW - Triplet repeat

KW - Z-DNA

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028789672&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028789672&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 1705

EP - 1714

JO - Electrophoresis

JF - Electrophoresis

SN - 0173-0835

IS - 9

ER -