Skin toxicity induced by wet heat

M. Spies, David Herndon, B. G. Sparkes, M. Allgöwer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Pieces of human skin from the skin bank were heated in an autoclave for 1 or 5min at temperatures 80, 90, 100, 110 and 135°C. The pieces were then homogenized and the homogenates were injected intraperitoneally into groups of mice. The amount injected was either a quantity equivalent to 50 or 75% of the mouse body surface area. Fourteen separate experiments were carried out, each one with a variety of temperatures. Mortality in the groups of mice was recorded by the 8th day. Control mice received homogenates of skin heated to no more that 38°C and out of a total of 104 control mice there were only 4 deaths. In contrast homogenates of skin heated to 135°C killed from 80 to 100% of the mice in different groups, averaging 92%. Skin heated to 110°C killed from 33 to 90% of the mice in different groups, averaging 63%. Skin heated to 100°C killed from 0 to 80% of the mice in different groups, averaging 33%. Temperatures of 80 and 90°C killed no more than 10% of the mice in any group, averaging less than 3%. One minute of heating seemed to be sufficient to induce the toxic effect in the skin. These findings indicated that wet heat application to skin was capable of inducing toxicity in a fashion similar to that demonstrated many years ago with hotter dry temperatures applied to skin for 15s. That application was shown to induce polymerization of skin cell membrane lipid proteins rendering them toxic. In this study, increasing toxicity appeared similarly to depend on the quantity of wet heat input as illustrated by the range of increasing temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures of scalding versus flame burns can accomplish similar dangerous effects; it is simply a quantitative matter of heat input.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-220
Number of pages6
JournalBurns
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2003

Fingerprint

Hot Temperature
Skin
Temperature
Poisons
Body Surface Area
Membrane Lipids
Burns
Polymerization
Heating
Membrane Proteins
Mortality

Keywords

  • Mortality
  • Scald
  • Skin toxicity
  • Wet heat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this

Spies, M., Herndon, D., Sparkes, B. G., & Allgöwer, M. (2003). Skin toxicity induced by wet heat. Burns, 29(3), 215-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3

Skin toxicity induced by wet heat. / Spies, M.; Herndon, David; Sparkes, B. G.; Allgöwer, M.

In: Burns, Vol. 29, No. 3, 05.2003, p. 215-220.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Spies, M, Herndon, D, Sparkes, BG & Allgöwer, M 2003, 'Skin toxicity induced by wet heat', Burns, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 215-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3
Spies M, Herndon D, Sparkes BG, Allgöwer M. Skin toxicity induced by wet heat. Burns. 2003 May;29(3):215-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3
Spies, M. ; Herndon, David ; Sparkes, B. G. ; Allgöwer, M. / Skin toxicity induced by wet heat. In: Burns. 2003 ; Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 215-220.
@article{b7e14a352f734fefa550fbd2e89f2f40,
title = "Skin toxicity induced by wet heat",
abstract = "Pieces of human skin from the skin bank were heated in an autoclave for 1 or 5min at temperatures 80, 90, 100, 110 and 135°C. The pieces were then homogenized and the homogenates were injected intraperitoneally into groups of mice. The amount injected was either a quantity equivalent to 50 or 75{\%} of the mouse body surface area. Fourteen separate experiments were carried out, each one with a variety of temperatures. Mortality in the groups of mice was recorded by the 8th day. Control mice received homogenates of skin heated to no more that 38°C and out of a total of 104 control mice there were only 4 deaths. In contrast homogenates of skin heated to 135°C killed from 80 to 100{\%} of the mice in different groups, averaging 92{\%}. Skin heated to 110°C killed from 33 to 90{\%} of the mice in different groups, averaging 63{\%}. Skin heated to 100°C killed from 0 to 80{\%} of the mice in different groups, averaging 33{\%}. Temperatures of 80 and 90°C killed no more than 10{\%} of the mice in any group, averaging less than 3{\%}. One minute of heating seemed to be sufficient to induce the toxic effect in the skin. These findings indicated that wet heat application to skin was capable of inducing toxicity in a fashion similar to that demonstrated many years ago with hotter dry temperatures applied to skin for 15s. That application was shown to induce polymerization of skin cell membrane lipid proteins rendering them toxic. In this study, increasing toxicity appeared similarly to depend on the quantity of wet heat input as illustrated by the range of increasing temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures of scalding versus flame burns can accomplish similar dangerous effects; it is simply a quantitative matter of heat input.",
keywords = "Mortality, Scald, Skin toxicity, Wet heat",
author = "M. Spies and David Herndon and Sparkes, {B. G.} and M. Allg{\"o}wer",
year = "2003",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "215--220",
journal = "Burns",
issn = "0305-4179",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Skin toxicity induced by wet heat

AU - Spies, M.

AU - Herndon, David

AU - Sparkes, B. G.

AU - Allgöwer, M.

PY - 2003/5

Y1 - 2003/5

N2 - Pieces of human skin from the skin bank were heated in an autoclave for 1 or 5min at temperatures 80, 90, 100, 110 and 135°C. The pieces were then homogenized and the homogenates were injected intraperitoneally into groups of mice. The amount injected was either a quantity equivalent to 50 or 75% of the mouse body surface area. Fourteen separate experiments were carried out, each one with a variety of temperatures. Mortality in the groups of mice was recorded by the 8th day. Control mice received homogenates of skin heated to no more that 38°C and out of a total of 104 control mice there were only 4 deaths. In contrast homogenates of skin heated to 135°C killed from 80 to 100% of the mice in different groups, averaging 92%. Skin heated to 110°C killed from 33 to 90% of the mice in different groups, averaging 63%. Skin heated to 100°C killed from 0 to 80% of the mice in different groups, averaging 33%. Temperatures of 80 and 90°C killed no more than 10% of the mice in any group, averaging less than 3%. One minute of heating seemed to be sufficient to induce the toxic effect in the skin. These findings indicated that wet heat application to skin was capable of inducing toxicity in a fashion similar to that demonstrated many years ago with hotter dry temperatures applied to skin for 15s. That application was shown to induce polymerization of skin cell membrane lipid proteins rendering them toxic. In this study, increasing toxicity appeared similarly to depend on the quantity of wet heat input as illustrated by the range of increasing temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures of scalding versus flame burns can accomplish similar dangerous effects; it is simply a quantitative matter of heat input.

AB - Pieces of human skin from the skin bank were heated in an autoclave for 1 or 5min at temperatures 80, 90, 100, 110 and 135°C. The pieces were then homogenized and the homogenates were injected intraperitoneally into groups of mice. The amount injected was either a quantity equivalent to 50 or 75% of the mouse body surface area. Fourteen separate experiments were carried out, each one with a variety of temperatures. Mortality in the groups of mice was recorded by the 8th day. Control mice received homogenates of skin heated to no more that 38°C and out of a total of 104 control mice there were only 4 deaths. In contrast homogenates of skin heated to 135°C killed from 80 to 100% of the mice in different groups, averaging 92%. Skin heated to 110°C killed from 33 to 90% of the mice in different groups, averaging 63%. Skin heated to 100°C killed from 0 to 80% of the mice in different groups, averaging 33%. Temperatures of 80 and 90°C killed no more than 10% of the mice in any group, averaging less than 3%. One minute of heating seemed to be sufficient to induce the toxic effect in the skin. These findings indicated that wet heat application to skin was capable of inducing toxicity in a fashion similar to that demonstrated many years ago with hotter dry temperatures applied to skin for 15s. That application was shown to induce polymerization of skin cell membrane lipid proteins rendering them toxic. In this study, increasing toxicity appeared similarly to depend on the quantity of wet heat input as illustrated by the range of increasing temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures of scalding versus flame burns can accomplish similar dangerous effects; it is simply a quantitative matter of heat input.

KW - Mortality

KW - Scald

KW - Skin toxicity

KW - Wet heat

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037404150&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037404150&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3

DO - 10.1016/S0305-4179(02)00272-3

M3 - Article

C2 - 12706613

AN - SCOPUS:0037404150

VL - 29

SP - 215

EP - 220

JO - Burns

JF - Burns

SN - 0305-4179

IS - 3

ER -