Smad7 inhibits autocrine expression of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells in baboon necrotizing enterocolitis

Kopperuncholan Namachivayam, Cynthia L. Blanco, Krishnan Mohankumar, Ramasamy Jagadeeswaran, Margarita Vasquez, Lisa Mcgill-Vargas, Steven A. Garzon, Sunil Jain, Ravinder K. Gill, Nancy E. Freitag, Jörn Hendrik Weitkamp, Steven R. Seidner, Akhil Maheshwari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Preterm infants may be at risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) due to deficiency of transforming growth factor- β 2 (TGF-β2) in the developing intestine. We hypothesized that low epithelial TGF-β2 expression in preterm intestine and during NEC results from diminished autocrine induction of TGF-β2 in these cells. Premature baboons delivered at 67% gestation were treated per current norms for human preterm infants. NEC was diagnosed by clinical and radiological findings. Inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β2, Smad7, Ski, and strawberry notch N (SnoN)/Ski-like oncoprotein (SKIL) was measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Smad7 effects were examined in transfected IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Findings were validated in archived human tissue samples of NEC. NEC was recorded in seven premature baboons. Consistent with existing human data, premature baboon intestine expressed less TGF-β2 than term intestine. TGF-β2 expression was regulated in epithelial cells in an autocrine fashion, which was interrupted in the premature intestine and during NEC due to increased expression of Smad7. LPS increased Smad7 binding to the TGF-β2 promoter and was associated with dimethylation of the lysine H3K9, a marker of transcriptional silencing, on the nucleosome of TGF-β2. Increased Smad7 expression in preterm intestine was correlated with the deficiency of SnoN/SKIL, a repressor of the Smad7 promoter. Smad7 inhibits autocrine expression of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells in the normal premature intestine and during NEC. Increased Smad7 expression in the developing intestine may be due to a developmental deficiency of the SnoN/SKIL oncoprotein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume304
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2013

Fingerprint

Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Papio
Transforming Growth Factors
Intestines
Epithelial Cells
Oncogene Proteins
Fragaria
Premature Infants
Nucleosomes
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Lysine
Immunohistochemistry
Cytokines
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • Necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Nonhuman primate
  • Ski-like oncoprotein
  • SnoN

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology
  • Hepatology

Cite this

Smad7 inhibits autocrine expression of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells in baboon necrotizing enterocolitis. / Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Blanco, Cynthia L.; Mohankumar, Krishnan; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Vasquez, Margarita; Mcgill-Vargas, Lisa; Garzon, Steven A.; Jain, Sunil; Gill, Ravinder K.; Freitag, Nancy E.; Weitkamp, Jörn Hendrik; Seidner, Steven R.; Maheshwari, Akhil.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 304, No. 2, 15.01.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Namachivayam, K, Blanco, CL, Mohankumar, K, Jagadeeswaran, R, Vasquez, M, Mcgill-Vargas, L, Garzon, SA, Jain, S, Gill, RK, Freitag, NE, Weitkamp, JH, Seidner, SR & Maheshwari, A 2013, 'Smad7 inhibits autocrine expression of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells in baboon necrotizing enterocolitis', American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 304, no. 2. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00141.2012
Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan ; Blanco, Cynthia L. ; Mohankumar, Krishnan ; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy ; Vasquez, Margarita ; Mcgill-Vargas, Lisa ; Garzon, Steven A. ; Jain, Sunil ; Gill, Ravinder K. ; Freitag, Nancy E. ; Weitkamp, Jörn Hendrik ; Seidner, Steven R. ; Maheshwari, Akhil. / Smad7 inhibits autocrine expression of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells in baboon necrotizing enterocolitis. In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2013 ; Vol. 304, No. 2.
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