Smartphone fundus photography

Hossein Nazari Khanamiri, Austin Nakatsuka, Jaafar El-Annan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Smartphone fundus photography is a simple technique to obtain ocular fundus pictures using a smartphone camera and a conventional handheld indirect ophthalmoscopy lens. This technique is indispensable when picture documentation of optic nerve, retina, and retinal vessels is necessary but a fundus camera is not available. The main advantage of this technique is the widespread availability of smartphones that allows documentation of macula and optic nerve changes in many settings that was not previously possible. Following the well-defined steps detailed here, such as proper alignment of the phone camera, handheld lens, and the patient's pupil, is the key for obtaining a clear retina picture with no interfering light reflections and aberrations. In this paper, the optical principles of indirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography will be reviewed first. Then, the step-by-step method to record a good quality retinal image using a smartphone will be explained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere55958
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number125
StatePublished - Jul 6 2017


  • Fundus camera
  • Fundus photography
  • Handheld plus lens
  • Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
  • Issue 125
  • Medicine
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Optic nerve
  • Retina
  • Smartphone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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