Sociodemographic Disparities in Pediatric Cochlear Implantation Access and Use: A Systematic Review

Mahmoud Omar, Anas Qatanani, Syed Z. Kaleem, Brian J. McKinnon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objectives: Pediatric cochlear implantation (CI) is a multistep process, which exposes a healthcare system's potential weaknesses in ability to deliver timely care to deaf children. The current systematic review aims to determine the sociodemographic disparities that predict pediatric CI access and use among CI candidates and recipients across the world. We hypothesize that sociodemographic factors independently influence CI access and use within a given country. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A qualitative systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases was conducted for studies investigating the association of sociodemographic factors such as race, income, or insurance status with measures of pediatric CI access, such as age at CI or CI rate. Results: Out of 807 unique abstracts initially retrieved, 39 papers were included in the final qualitative systematic review. Twenty-seven thousand seven hundred and fifty-one CI-candidate children (6,623 CI recipients) were studied in 14 countries, with 21 studies conducted in the United States of America, published within the years of 1993 to 2020. Conclusion: Some measures of CI access, such as age at CI and rates of CI, are consistently reported in the CI disparities literature while others such as access to rehabilitation services, willingness to undergo CI, and daily CI use are rarely measured. There are persistently reported disparities in a few key measures of CI access in a few populations, while there are some populations with a paucity of data. Future studies should delineate the nuances in the mechanisms of disparities by conducting multivariable analysis of representative sample data. Laryngoscope, 132:670–686, 2022.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)670-686
Number of pages17
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Pediatric otology
  • cochlear implant
  • healthcare disparities
  • hearing loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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