Spasticity: The misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome

Cindy B. Ivanhoe, Timothy Reistetter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spasticity is a sensorimotor phenomenon related to the integration of the nervous system motor responses to sensory input. Although most commonly considered a velocity-dependent increase to tonic stretch, it is related to hypersensitivity of the reflex arc and changes that occur within the central nervous system, most notably, the spinal cord. Injury to the central nervous system results in loss of descending inhibition, allowing for the clinical manifestation of abnormal impulses. Muscle activity becomes overactive. This is mediated at several areas of the stretch-reflex pathway. Although spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, it is frequently tied to the other presentations of the said syndrome. Contracture, hypertonia, weakness, and movement disorders can all coexist as a result of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Although basic science descriptions of spasticity are being elucidated, clinically, confusion exists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Volume83
Issue number10 SUPPL.
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Motor Neurons
Central Nervous System
Stretch Reflex
Confusion
Movement Disorders
Contracture
Nervous System
Reflex
Spinal Cord
Hypersensitivity
Muscles
Wounds and Injuries
Inhibition (Psychology)
Say syndrome

Keywords

  • Pathophysiology
  • Spasticity
  • Upper Motor Neuron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Health Professions(all)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Spasticity : The misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome. / Ivanhoe, Cindy B.; Reistetter, Timothy.

In: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 83, No. 10 SUPPL., 10.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f06b76ed18734c7b86785e03ea17179f,
title = "Spasticity: The misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome",
abstract = "Spasticity is a sensorimotor phenomenon related to the integration of the nervous system motor responses to sensory input. Although most commonly considered a velocity-dependent increase to tonic stretch, it is related to hypersensitivity of the reflex arc and changes that occur within the central nervous system, most notably, the spinal cord. Injury to the central nervous system results in loss of descending inhibition, allowing for the clinical manifestation of abnormal impulses. Muscle activity becomes overactive. This is mediated at several areas of the stretch-reflex pathway. Although spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, it is frequently tied to the other presentations of the said syndrome. Contracture, hypertonia, weakness, and movement disorders can all coexist as a result of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Although basic science descriptions of spasticity are being elucidated, clinically, confusion exists.",
keywords = "Pathophysiology, Spasticity, Upper Motor Neuron",
author = "Ivanhoe, {Cindy B.} and Timothy Reistetter",
year = "2004",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1097/01.PHM.0000141125.28611.3E",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "83",
journal = "American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation",
issn = "0894-9115",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "10 SUPPL.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spasticity

T2 - The misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome

AU - Ivanhoe, Cindy B.

AU - Reistetter, Timothy

PY - 2004/10

Y1 - 2004/10

N2 - Spasticity is a sensorimotor phenomenon related to the integration of the nervous system motor responses to sensory input. Although most commonly considered a velocity-dependent increase to tonic stretch, it is related to hypersensitivity of the reflex arc and changes that occur within the central nervous system, most notably, the spinal cord. Injury to the central nervous system results in loss of descending inhibition, allowing for the clinical manifestation of abnormal impulses. Muscle activity becomes overactive. This is mediated at several areas of the stretch-reflex pathway. Although spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, it is frequently tied to the other presentations of the said syndrome. Contracture, hypertonia, weakness, and movement disorders can all coexist as a result of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Although basic science descriptions of spasticity are being elucidated, clinically, confusion exists.

AB - Spasticity is a sensorimotor phenomenon related to the integration of the nervous system motor responses to sensory input. Although most commonly considered a velocity-dependent increase to tonic stretch, it is related to hypersensitivity of the reflex arc and changes that occur within the central nervous system, most notably, the spinal cord. Injury to the central nervous system results in loss of descending inhibition, allowing for the clinical manifestation of abnormal impulses. Muscle activity becomes overactive. This is mediated at several areas of the stretch-reflex pathway. Although spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, it is frequently tied to the other presentations of the said syndrome. Contracture, hypertonia, weakness, and movement disorders can all coexist as a result of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Although basic science descriptions of spasticity are being elucidated, clinically, confusion exists.

KW - Pathophysiology

KW - Spasticity

KW - Upper Motor Neuron

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4644224458&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4644224458&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/01.PHM.0000141125.28611.3E

DO - 10.1097/01.PHM.0000141125.28611.3E

M3 - Article

C2 - 15448572

AN - SCOPUS:4644224458

VL - 83

JO - American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

JF - American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

SN - 0894-9115

IS - 10 SUPPL.

ER -