Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Northern Argentina

O. D. Salomón, M. L. Wilson, L. E. Munstermann, B. L. Travi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Scopus citations


Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were captured in an area of Argentina endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). A total of 44,944 flies were collected during a 130-wk interepidemic period from 1990 through 1993. These sand flies included Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) (97.8%), Lutzomyia migonei (França) (1.2%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (Brèthes) (0.8%), Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) (0.1%), and Lutzomyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.1%). Lutzomyia neivai was more abundant in secondary forests and peridomestic environments associated with human cases than in primary forest or xeric thorn scrub areas. Time series analyses of species densities suggested a bimodal or trimodal annual pattern related to rainfall peaks, a 5-wk reproductive cycle, and peridomestic local populations that were located adjacent to secondary forests. In general, sand fly abundance was correlated with the rainfall of the previous year. Lutzomyia neivai spatial distributions were consistent with ACL incidence patterns during the study and in the recent outbreaks in Argentina. However, Lu. migonei also may be involved in peridomestic transmission. Our results suggest that there is a need for improved, long-term surveillance of sand flies and ACL cases, as well as development of effective intervention strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-39
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of medical entomology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes



  • American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
  • Argentina
  • Lutzomyia
  • Seasonal abundance
  • Vector ecology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

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