Speed and Rhythm Affect Temporal Structure of Variability in Reaching Poststroke: A Pilot Study

Amit Sethi, Nick Stergiou, Tara S. Patterson, Carolynn Patten, Lorie G. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Temporal structure reveals the potential adaptive strategies employed during upper extremity movements. The authors compared the temporal structure of upper extremity joints under 3 different reaching conditions: preferred speed, fast speed, and reaching with rhythmic auditory cues in 10 individuals poststroke. They also investigated the temporal structure of these 3 reaching conditions in 8 healthy controls to aid in the interpretation of the observed patterns in the poststroke cohort. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was used to measure the temporal structure of the upper extremity joints. ApEn was similar between conditions in controls. After stroke, ApEn was significantly higher for shoulder, elbow, and wrist both at fast speed and with rhythmic cues compared with preferred speed. ApEn at index finger was significantly higher only with rhythmic cues compared with preferred speed. The authors propose that practice reaching at faster speed and with rhythmic cues as a component of rehabilitation interventions may enhance adaptability after stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
StateAccepted/In press - Oct 8 2016



  • nonlinear
  • rhythm
  • stroke
  • temporal structure
  • upper extremity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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