Study design issues in evaluating immune biomarkers

Ronald J. Bosch, Xinyan Zhang, Netanya G. Sandler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: The dramatic increase in the number and type of immune biomarkers that can be measured, particularly those assessing immune activation, has led to numerous investigations in HIV-infected individuals to explore pathogenesis and to assess therapeutic interventions that aim to attenuate immune activation. An overview is provided on study designs and related statistical and operational issues relevant to these investigations. RECENT FINDINGS: Cohort studies and nested case-control studies within these cohorts have identified multiple biomarkers that are associated with an increased risk of disease. Early-stage clinical trials of therapies to address these risks in HIV-infected individuals with viral suppression on antiretroviral therapy are a substantial focus of current HIV research. SUMMARY: Appropriate study design is essential in biomarker research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-154
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • biomarker
  • clinical trials
  • measurement error
  • observational research
  • surrogate marker

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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