Surgical Treatment for Refractory Gastroparesis: Stimulator, Pyloric Surgery, or Both?

Bryan Zoll, Asad Jehangir, Michael A. Edwards, Roman Petrov, William Hughes, Zubair Malik, Henry P. Parkman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Several surgical options exist for refractory gastroparesis (Gp) including gastric electric stimulation (GES) and pyloric surgery (PS) such as pyloromyotomy or pyloroplasty. Few studies exist comparing the outcomes of these surgeries. Aim: Compare the clinical outcomes of GES, PS, and simultaneous GES+PS for refractory Gp. Methods: Patients undergoing surgical intervention at our medical center from January 2016 to April 2019 were given pre- and post-surgery questionnaires to assess their response to intervention: Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms (PAGI-SYM) grading symptoms and Clinical Patient Grading Assessment Scale (CPGAS) grading response to treatment. Results are expressed as mean ± SE. Results: One hundred thirty-two patients underwent surgical intervention; 12 were excluded. Mean CPGAS improvement overall was 2.8 ± 0.2 (p < 0.01): GES+PS had CPGAS score at 3.6 ± 0.5, pyloric interventions 3.1 ± 0.5, and GES 2.5 ± 0.4 (p > 0.05). Mean improvement in Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) total score was 1.0 ± 0.1 (p < 0.01), with improvement of 1.1 ± 0.2 for GES + PS, 0.9 ± 0.2 for GES, and 0.9 ± 0.2 for PS (p > 0.05). GES and GES + PS, but not PS only, significantly improved symptoms of nausea and vomiting (p < 0.01). Among gastroparesis subtypes, patients with diabetic gastroparesis had more improvement on nausea/vomiting subscale compared with idiopathic gastroparesis (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Patients with refractory symptoms of Gp undergoing GES, PS, or combined GES+PS each had significant improvement of their GCSI total score. GES and combined GES+PS significantly improved nausea/vomiting. These results suggest GES or combined GES+PS appears better for nausea/vomiting predominant refractory Gp.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2204-2211
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Gastric electric stimulation
  • Gastroparesis
  • Pyloromyotomy
  • Pyloroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Gastroenterology


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