Oxidation of lipids generates large quantities of highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (enals). Enals and their protein adducts accumulate in the tissues of several pathologies. In vitro, low concentrations of enals such as HNE (4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal) affect cell signaling whereas high concentrations of enals are cytotoxic. Direct conjugation of the C2–C3 double bond of enals with the sulfhydryl group of GSH is a major route for the metabolism and detoxification of enals. Recently, we found that glutathionyl conjugate of HNE (GS-HNE) enhances the peritoneal leukocyte infiltration and stimulates the formation of proinflammatory lipid mediators. Moreover, the reduced form of the glutathione conjugate of HNE (GS-DHN) elicits strong mitogenic signaling in smooth muscle cells. In this chapter we discuss the methods to study the metabolism of enals and the redox signaling properties of glutathionyl conjugates of HNE.