Targeting Chromatin Remodeling in Inflammation and Fibrosis

Jun Yang, Bing Tian, A. R. Brasier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mucosal surfaces of the human body are lined by a contiguous epithelial cell surface that forms a barrier to aerosolized pathogens. Specialized pattern recognition receptors detect the presence of viral pathogens and initiate protective host responses by triggering activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/RelA transcription factor and formation of a complex with the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb)/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 and Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) epigenetic reader. The RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb complex produces acute inflammation by regulating transcriptional elongation, which produces a rapid genomic response by inactive genes maintained in an open chromatin configuration engaged with hypophosphorylated RNA polymerase II. We describe recent studies that have linked prolonged activation of the RelA-BRD4 pathway with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing a core of EMT corepressors, stimulating secretion of growth factors promoting airway fibrosis. The mesenchymal state produces rewiring of the kinome and reprogramming of innate responses toward inflammation. In addition, the core regulator Zinc finger E-box homeodomain 1 (ZEB1) silences the expression of the interferon response factor 1 (IRF1), required for type III IFN expression. This epigenetic silencing is mediated by the Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase. Because of their potential applications in cancer and inflammation, small-molecule inhibitors of NFκB/RelA, CDK9, BRD4, and EZH2 have been the targets of medicinal chemistry efforts. We suggest that disruption of the RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb pathway and EZH2 methyltransferase has important implications for reversing fibrosis and restoring normal mucosal immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2016

Fingerprint

Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Chromatin
Fibrosis
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Pathogens
Inflammation
Epigenomics
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9
Transcription Factor RelA
Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B
Chemical activation
Pattern Recognition Receptors
Co-Repressor Proteins
Mucosal Immunity
Proteins
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
RNA Polymerase II
Zinc Fingers
Methyltransferases

Keywords

  • Bromodomain 4
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • Innate inflammation
  • Transcriptional elongation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Targeting Chromatin Remodeling in Inflammation and Fibrosis",
abstract = "Mucosal surfaces of the human body are lined by a contiguous epithelial cell surface that forms a barrier to aerosolized pathogens. Specialized pattern recognition receptors detect the presence of viral pathogens and initiate protective host responses by triggering activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/RelA transcription factor and formation of a complex with the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb)/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 and Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) epigenetic reader. The RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb complex produces acute inflammation by regulating transcriptional elongation, which produces a rapid genomic response by inactive genes maintained in an open chromatin configuration engaged with hypophosphorylated RNA polymerase II. We describe recent studies that have linked prolonged activation of the RelA-BRD4 pathway with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing a core of EMT corepressors, stimulating secretion of growth factors promoting airway fibrosis. The mesenchymal state produces rewiring of the kinome and reprogramming of innate responses toward inflammation. In addition, the core regulator Zinc finger E-box homeodomain 1 (ZEB1) silences the expression of the interferon response factor 1 (IRF1), required for type III IFN expression. This epigenetic silencing is mediated by the Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase. Because of their potential applications in cancer and inflammation, small-molecule inhibitors of NFκB/RelA, CDK9, BRD4, and EZH2 have been the targets of medicinal chemistry efforts. We suggest that disruption of the RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb pathway and EZH2 methyltransferase has important implications for reversing fibrosis and restoring normal mucosal immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases.",
keywords = "Bromodomain 4, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Innate inflammation, Transcriptional elongation",
author = "Jun Yang and Bing Tian and Brasier, {A. R.}",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Targeting Chromatin Remodeling in Inflammation and Fibrosis

AU - Yang, Jun

AU - Tian, Bing

AU - Brasier, A. R.

PY - 2016

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N2 - Mucosal surfaces of the human body are lined by a contiguous epithelial cell surface that forms a barrier to aerosolized pathogens. Specialized pattern recognition receptors detect the presence of viral pathogens and initiate protective host responses by triggering activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/RelA transcription factor and formation of a complex with the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb)/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 and Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) epigenetic reader. The RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb complex produces acute inflammation by regulating transcriptional elongation, which produces a rapid genomic response by inactive genes maintained in an open chromatin configuration engaged with hypophosphorylated RNA polymerase II. We describe recent studies that have linked prolonged activation of the RelA-BRD4 pathway with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing a core of EMT corepressors, stimulating secretion of growth factors promoting airway fibrosis. The mesenchymal state produces rewiring of the kinome and reprogramming of innate responses toward inflammation. In addition, the core regulator Zinc finger E-box homeodomain 1 (ZEB1) silences the expression of the interferon response factor 1 (IRF1), required for type III IFN expression. This epigenetic silencing is mediated by the Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase. Because of their potential applications in cancer and inflammation, small-molecule inhibitors of NFκB/RelA, CDK9, BRD4, and EZH2 have been the targets of medicinal chemistry efforts. We suggest that disruption of the RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb pathway and EZH2 methyltransferase has important implications for reversing fibrosis and restoring normal mucosal immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases.

AB - Mucosal surfaces of the human body are lined by a contiguous epithelial cell surface that forms a barrier to aerosolized pathogens. Specialized pattern recognition receptors detect the presence of viral pathogens and initiate protective host responses by triggering activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB)/RelA transcription factor and formation of a complex with the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb)/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9 and Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) epigenetic reader. The RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb complex produces acute inflammation by regulating transcriptional elongation, which produces a rapid genomic response by inactive genes maintained in an open chromatin configuration engaged with hypophosphorylated RNA polymerase II. We describe recent studies that have linked prolonged activation of the RelA-BRD4 pathway with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing a core of EMT corepressors, stimulating secretion of growth factors promoting airway fibrosis. The mesenchymal state produces rewiring of the kinome and reprogramming of innate responses toward inflammation. In addition, the core regulator Zinc finger E-box homeodomain 1 (ZEB1) silences the expression of the interferon response factor 1 (IRF1), required for type III IFN expression. This epigenetic silencing is mediated by the Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase. Because of their potential applications in cancer and inflammation, small-molecule inhibitors of NFκB/RelA, CDK9, BRD4, and EZH2 have been the targets of medicinal chemistry efforts. We suggest that disruption of the RelA·BRD4·P-TEFb pathway and EZH2 methyltransferase has important implications for reversing fibrosis and restoring normal mucosal immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases.

KW - Bromodomain 4

KW - Epithelial-mesenchymal transition

KW - Innate inflammation

KW - Transcriptional elongation

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