Temporal sequencing of nicotine dependence and major depressive disorder: A U.S. national study

José M. Martínez-Ortega, Silvia Franco, Jorge M. Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas, Shuai Wang, Manuel Gurpegui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, little attention has been given to the temporal order between the two disorders. We compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded (ND-prior) or followed the onset of MDD (MDD-prior). Binary logistic regression models were computed to compare ND-prior (n=546) and MDD-prior (n=801) individuals from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n=43,093). We found that MDD-prior were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts and a family history of both depression and antisocial behavior, to have had psychiatric hospitalization, and to have an earlier age of onset of the first depressive episode; but a later age of onset for both daily smoking and ND. On average, MDD-prior individuals showed a significantly longer transition time from daily smoking to ND (15.6±0.6 vs. 6.9±0.4 years, P<0.001). In contrast, ND-prior subjects had a significantly greater proportion of withdrawal symptoms, and of lifetime alcohol use or alcohol use disorder. We conclude that the phenomenology and course of ND and MDD vary significantly, depending on which disorder had earlier onset.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-269
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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