Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates epithelial tissue homeostasis by activating processes that control cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis. Disruption of the TGF-β signaling pathway often occurs in colorectal cancers. Earlier, we have shown that TGF-β induces apoptosis through the transcription factor Smad3. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays were used to identify TGF-β/Smad3 target genes that regulate apoptosis in rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1). We found that TGF-β repressed the expression of the inhibitor of differentiation (Id) gene family. Knockdown of Id1 and Id2 gene expression induced apoptosis in RIE-1 cells, whereas overexpression of Id2 attenuated TGF-β-induced apoptosis. TranSignal Protein/DNA arrays were used to identify the hypoxia-inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) as a downstream target of TGF-β. HIF-1 is a basic helix-loop-helix protein, and overexpression of Id2 blocked HIF-1 activation by TGF-β. Furthermore, knockdown of HIF-1 blocked TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Thus, we have identified HIF-1 as a novel mediator downstream of Id2 in the pathway of TGF-β-induced apoptosis.
- Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays
- Hypoxia-inducing factor
- Inhibitor of differentiation
- TranSignal Protein/DNA arrays
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research