The association between gaba-modulators and clostridium difficile infection - A matched retrospective case-control study

Jonathan Ström, Johan Tham, Fredrik Månsson, Jonas Ahl, Tor C. Savidge, Sara Dann-Grice, Fredrik Resman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective Recently, metabolomics studies have suggested that the neurotransmitter ã-amino butyric acid (GABA) may modulate C. difficile infection (CDI) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the association between GABA-modulating pharmaceuticals and CDI development. Methods In July-December 2013, we performed a matched, retrospective case-control study in Skåne county, Sweden, to assess the association between the use of GABA-modulators (defined as regular use of at least one of the following: zolpidem, zopiclone, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, pregabalin or baclofen) and CDI. Multivariate regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for CDI, were fitted to assess the associations and a propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed. Results The study included 292 cases and 292 matched controls. In a multivariate regression model only recent antibiotic use (clindamycin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) and nursing home residency was significantly associated with CDI. The regular use of any GABA-modulator was not associated with CDI (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.69-1.66, p = 0.76). The association between regular use of the selective GABA-agonist zolpidem and CDI trended towards significance (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 0.91-5.86, p = 0.078). These associations remained when only cases treated with antibiotics were included. Corresponding findings for zolpidem was observed in a propensity-score adjusted analysis (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 0.91-6.97, p = 0.075). Severe initial CDI was significantly associated with CDI recurrence (OR = 3.77, 95% CU 1.20-11.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This study did not identify a general association between GABA-modulators and CDI. A trend towards a significant association between zolpidem and CDI was observed, an association that should be re-assessed in a study appropriately powered for this particular hypothesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0169386
JournalPLoS One
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Clostridium Infections
Clostridium difficile
Clostridium
GABA Modulators
case-control studies
Modulators
Case-Control Studies
zopiclone
gamma-aminobutyric acid
infection
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Anti-Bacterial Agents
GABA Agonists
Baclofen
Butyric Acid
Nursing
Clindamycin
Fluoroquinolones
Cephalosporins
Benzodiazepines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

The association between gaba-modulators and clostridium difficile infection - A matched retrospective case-control study. / Ström, Jonathan; Tham, Johan; Månsson, Fredrik; Ahl, Jonas; Savidge, Tor C.; Dann-Grice, Sara; Resman, Fredrik.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 12, No. 1, e0169386, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ström, Jonathan ; Tham, Johan ; Månsson, Fredrik ; Ahl, Jonas ; Savidge, Tor C. ; Dann-Grice, Sara ; Resman, Fredrik. / The association between gaba-modulators and clostridium difficile infection - A matched retrospective case-control study. In: PLoS One. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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N2 - Objective Recently, metabolomics studies have suggested that the neurotransmitter ã-amino butyric acid (GABA) may modulate C. difficile infection (CDI) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the association between GABA-modulating pharmaceuticals and CDI development. Methods In July-December 2013, we performed a matched, retrospective case-control study in Skåne county, Sweden, to assess the association between the use of GABA-modulators (defined as regular use of at least one of the following: zolpidem, zopiclone, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, pregabalin or baclofen) and CDI. Multivariate regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for CDI, were fitted to assess the associations and a propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed. Results The study included 292 cases and 292 matched controls. In a multivariate regression model only recent antibiotic use (clindamycin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) and nursing home residency was significantly associated with CDI. The regular use of any GABA-modulator was not associated with CDI (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.69-1.66, p = 0.76). The association between regular use of the selective GABA-agonist zolpidem and CDI trended towards significance (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 0.91-5.86, p = 0.078). These associations remained when only cases treated with antibiotics were included. Corresponding findings for zolpidem was observed in a propensity-score adjusted analysis (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 0.91-6.97, p = 0.075). Severe initial CDI was significantly associated with CDI recurrence (OR = 3.77, 95% CU 1.20-11.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This study did not identify a general association between GABA-modulators and CDI. A trend towards a significant association between zolpidem and CDI was observed, an association that should be re-assessed in a study appropriately powered for this particular hypothesis.

AB - Objective Recently, metabolomics studies have suggested that the neurotransmitter ã-amino butyric acid (GABA) may modulate C. difficile infection (CDI) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the association between GABA-modulating pharmaceuticals and CDI development. Methods In July-December 2013, we performed a matched, retrospective case-control study in Skåne county, Sweden, to assess the association between the use of GABA-modulators (defined as regular use of at least one of the following: zolpidem, zopiclone, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, pregabalin or baclofen) and CDI. Multivariate regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for CDI, were fitted to assess the associations and a propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed. Results The study included 292 cases and 292 matched controls. In a multivariate regression model only recent antibiotic use (clindamycin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) and nursing home residency was significantly associated with CDI. The regular use of any GABA-modulator was not associated with CDI (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.69-1.66, p = 0.76). The association between regular use of the selective GABA-agonist zolpidem and CDI trended towards significance (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 0.91-5.86, p = 0.078). These associations remained when only cases treated with antibiotics were included. Corresponding findings for zolpidem was observed in a propensity-score adjusted analysis (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 0.91-6.97, p = 0.075). Severe initial CDI was significantly associated with CDI recurrence (OR = 3.77, 95% CU 1.20-11.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This study did not identify a general association between GABA-modulators and CDI. A trend towards a significant association between zolpidem and CDI was observed, an association that should be re-assessed in a study appropriately powered for this particular hypothesis.

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