The Association Between Muscle Weakness and Incident Diabetes in Older Mexican Americans

Ryan McGrath, Brenda M. Vincent, Soham Al Snih, Soham Al Snih al snih, Kyriakos Markides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: A natural decline of muscle strength occurs during the aging process; however, preserving muscle strength may lower the rate of many preventable diseases such as diabetes, especially in higher risk populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes in older Mexican Americans. Design: Observational, longitudinal study. Setting: Urban and rural households in the Southwestern United States. Participants: A subsample of 1903 Mexican Americans aged at least 65 years without diabetes at baseline were followed for 19 years. Measurements: Muscle weakness was assessed with a hand-held dynamometer and was normalized to body weight (normalized grip strength). Male and female participants were categorized as weak if their normalized grip strength was ≤0.46 and ≤0.30, respectively. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes (self-reported) when using age as an entry variable and after adjusting for education, employment status, instrumental activities of daily living disability, interview language, marital status, and obesity. A sensitivity analysis was performed to account for influential outliers for the outcome variable (incident diabetes) and the model was re-run. Results: The hazard ratio for incident diabetes was 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak male participants and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.41; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak female participants, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Conclusions: Muscle weakness was associated with an increased rate of diabetes in older male and female Mexican Americans. Health professionals should encourage activities that preserve muscle strength, thereby preventing the incidence of diabetes in older Mexican Americans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

Muscle Weakness
Muscle Strength
Hand Strength
Southwestern United States
Confidence Intervals
Marital Status
Activities of Daily Living
Proportional Hazards Models
Observational Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Language
Hand
Obesity
Body Weight
Interviews
Education
Incidence
Health
Population

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Handgrip strength
  • Obesity
  • Preventative medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Medicine(all)
  • Health Policy

Cite this

@article{ce30a85aaa774a1bac6cb6d4fb4c5c90,
title = "The Association Between Muscle Weakness and Incident Diabetes in Older Mexican Americans",
abstract = "Objectives: A natural decline of muscle strength occurs during the aging process; however, preserving muscle strength may lower the rate of many preventable diseases such as diabetes, especially in higher risk populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes in older Mexican Americans. Design: Observational, longitudinal study. Setting: Urban and rural households in the Southwestern United States. Participants: A subsample of 1903 Mexican Americans aged at least 65 years without diabetes at baseline were followed for 19 years. Measurements: Muscle weakness was assessed with a hand-held dynamometer and was normalized to body weight (normalized grip strength). Male and female participants were categorized as weak if their normalized grip strength was ≤0.46 and ≤0.30, respectively. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes (self-reported) when using age as an entry variable and after adjusting for education, employment status, instrumental activities of daily living disability, interview language, marital status, and obesity. A sensitivity analysis was performed to account for influential outliers for the outcome variable (incident diabetes) and the model was re-run. Results: The hazard ratio for incident diabetes was 1.05 (95{\%} confidence interval: 1.02-1.09; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak male participants and 1.38 (95{\%} confidence interval: 1.35-1.41; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak female participants, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Conclusions: Muscle weakness was associated with an increased rate of diabetes in older male and female Mexican Americans. Health professionals should encourage activities that preserve muscle strength, thereby preventing the incidence of diabetes in older Mexican Americans.",
keywords = "Aging, Handgrip strength, Obesity, Preventative medicine",
author = "Ryan McGrath and Vincent, {Brenda M.} and {Al Snih}, Soham and {Al Snih al snih}, Soham and Kyriakos Markides",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.jamda.2017.01.017",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of the American Medical Directors Association",
issn = "1525-8610",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Association Between Muscle Weakness and Incident Diabetes in Older Mexican Americans

AU - McGrath, Ryan

AU - Vincent, Brenda M.

AU - Al Snih, Soham

AU - Al Snih al snih, Soham

AU - Markides, Kyriakos

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Objectives: A natural decline of muscle strength occurs during the aging process; however, preserving muscle strength may lower the rate of many preventable diseases such as diabetes, especially in higher risk populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes in older Mexican Americans. Design: Observational, longitudinal study. Setting: Urban and rural households in the Southwestern United States. Participants: A subsample of 1903 Mexican Americans aged at least 65 years without diabetes at baseline were followed for 19 years. Measurements: Muscle weakness was assessed with a hand-held dynamometer and was normalized to body weight (normalized grip strength). Male and female participants were categorized as weak if their normalized grip strength was ≤0.46 and ≤0.30, respectively. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes (self-reported) when using age as an entry variable and after adjusting for education, employment status, instrumental activities of daily living disability, interview language, marital status, and obesity. A sensitivity analysis was performed to account for influential outliers for the outcome variable (incident diabetes) and the model was re-run. Results: The hazard ratio for incident diabetes was 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak male participants and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.41; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak female participants, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Conclusions: Muscle weakness was associated with an increased rate of diabetes in older male and female Mexican Americans. Health professionals should encourage activities that preserve muscle strength, thereby preventing the incidence of diabetes in older Mexican Americans.

AB - Objectives: A natural decline of muscle strength occurs during the aging process; however, preserving muscle strength may lower the rate of many preventable diseases such as diabetes, especially in higher risk populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes in older Mexican Americans. Design: Observational, longitudinal study. Setting: Urban and rural households in the Southwestern United States. Participants: A subsample of 1903 Mexican Americans aged at least 65 years without diabetes at baseline were followed for 19 years. Measurements: Muscle weakness was assessed with a hand-held dynamometer and was normalized to body weight (normalized grip strength). Male and female participants were categorized as weak if their normalized grip strength was ≤0.46 and ≤0.30, respectively. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the association between muscle weakness and incident diabetes (self-reported) when using age as an entry variable and after adjusting for education, employment status, instrumental activities of daily living disability, interview language, marital status, and obesity. A sensitivity analysis was performed to account for influential outliers for the outcome variable (incident diabetes) and the model was re-run. Results: The hazard ratio for incident diabetes was 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak male participants and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.41; P < .001) in weak vs not-weak female participants, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Conclusions: Muscle weakness was associated with an increased rate of diabetes in older male and female Mexican Americans. Health professionals should encourage activities that preserve muscle strength, thereby preventing the incidence of diabetes in older Mexican Americans.

KW - Aging

KW - Handgrip strength

KW - Obesity

KW - Preventative medicine

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