The axon initial segment in nervous system disease and injury

Shelly Buffington, Matthew N. Rasband

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Scopus citations

Abstract

The axon initial segment (AIS), with its dense clusters of voltage-gated ion channels decorating the axonal membrane, regulates action potential initiation and modulation. The AIS also functions as a barrier to maintain axodendritic polarity, and its precise axonal location contributes to the fine-tuning of neuronal excitability. Therefore, it is not surprising that mutations in AIS-related genes, disruption of the molecular organization of the AIS and altered AIS ion channel expression, function, location and/or density are emerging as key players in neurological disorders. Here, we consider the role of the AIS in nervous system disease and injury. The axon initial segment (AIS), with its dense clusters of voltage-gated ion channels decorating the axonal membrane, regulates action potential initiation and modulation. The AIS also functions as a barrier to maintain axodendritic polarity, and its precise axonal location contributes to the fine-tuning of neuronal excitability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1609-1619
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Neuroscience
Volume34
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Action potential
  • Axon initial segment
  • Disease
  • Ion channel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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