The Effect of Simvastatin on Infection-Induced Inflammatory Response of Human Fetal Membranes

Sanmaan K. Basraon, Maged Costantine, George Saade, Ramkumar Menon

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Problem: Inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to preterm labor pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to test anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin in human fetal membranes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Method of study: Normal term human fetal membrane explants (n = 11) were allocated to one of the six study groups: control, LPS only (100 ng/mL), simvastatin only (125 ng/mL), simvastatin given 6 hrs prior to LPS (S-L), simvastatin given 6 hrs post-LPS (L-S), and simvastatin and LPS given simultaneously (L+S). Explants were incubated for 24 hrs. Multiplex ELISA for cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; soluble cytokine receptors: sIL-1R2, sIL-6R, sTNFR1, and R2; MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, and 10); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was performed on tissue culture supernatants. Pairwise comparison between different groups was conducted by least square mean estimates. Results: Compared with controls, LPS stimulation increased cytokine production and their tissue bioavailability (measured as the molar ratio of cytokine to its soluble receptor), thus confirming membrane immune reactivity (P < 0.01). Pre-treatment with simvastatin (S-L) reduced IL-6 (P = 0.02), TNF-α (P = 0.02), and MMP-9 (P = 0.01); post-treatment (L-S) reduced IL-1β (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.04), while simultaneous treatment (L+S) did not reduce any of the cytokines tested. Simvastatin reduced the molar ratio of TNF-α/sTNFR1 or R2 and IL-1β/sIL-1R2 (P = 0.01 and 0.04 in S-L group; P = 0.01 and 0.004 in L-S group, respectively). S-L additionally reduced MMP-9/TIMP-2 molar ratio (P = 0.0007). Conclusions: Simvastatin downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory response and restores homeostasis between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Simvastatin may reduce fetal inflammatory response associated with infection-induced preterm birth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2015

Fingerprint

Extraembryonic Membranes
Simvastatin
Lipopolysaccharides
Infection
Cytokines
Interleukin-1
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Interleukin-6
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
Cytokine Receptors
Premature Obstetric Labor
Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
Premature Birth
Least-Squares Analysis
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Interleukin-10
Biological Availability
Homeostasis

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Pregnancy
  • Preterm birth
  • Preterm labor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

Cite this

@article{1bf607d69def4620aadd4979bf380ef1,
title = "The Effect of Simvastatin on Infection-Induced Inflammatory Response of Human Fetal Membranes",
abstract = "Problem: Inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to preterm labor pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to test anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin in human fetal membranes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Method of study: Normal term human fetal membrane explants (n = 11) were allocated to one of the six study groups: control, LPS only (100 ng/mL), simvastatin only (125 ng/mL), simvastatin given 6 hrs prior to LPS (S-L), simvastatin given 6 hrs post-LPS (L-S), and simvastatin and LPS given simultaneously (L+S). Explants were incubated for 24 hrs. Multiplex ELISA for cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; soluble cytokine receptors: sIL-1R2, sIL-6R, sTNFR1, and R2; MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, and 10); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was performed on tissue culture supernatants. Pairwise comparison between different groups was conducted by least square mean estimates. Results: Compared with controls, LPS stimulation increased cytokine production and their tissue bioavailability (measured as the molar ratio of cytokine to its soluble receptor), thus confirming membrane immune reactivity (P < 0.01). Pre-treatment with simvastatin (S-L) reduced IL-6 (P = 0.02), TNF-α (P = 0.02), and MMP-9 (P = 0.01); post-treatment (L-S) reduced IL-1β (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.04), while simultaneous treatment (L+S) did not reduce any of the cytokines tested. Simvastatin reduced the molar ratio of TNF-α/sTNFR1 or R2 and IL-1β/sIL-1R2 (P = 0.01 and 0.04 in S-L group; P = 0.01 and 0.004 in L-S group, respectively). S-L additionally reduced MMP-9/TIMP-2 molar ratio (P = 0.0007). Conclusions: Simvastatin downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory response and restores homeostasis between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Simvastatin may reduce fetal inflammatory response associated with infection-induced preterm birth.",
keywords = "Cytokines, Matrix metalloproteinases, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Preterm labor",
author = "Basraon, {Sanmaan K.} and Maged Costantine and George Saade and Ramkumar Menon",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1111/aji.12372",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology",
issn = "1046-7408",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Effect of Simvastatin on Infection-Induced Inflammatory Response of Human Fetal Membranes

AU - Basraon, Sanmaan K.

AU - Costantine, Maged

AU - Saade, George

AU - Menon, Ramkumar

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Problem: Inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to preterm labor pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to test anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin in human fetal membranes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Method of study: Normal term human fetal membrane explants (n = 11) were allocated to one of the six study groups: control, LPS only (100 ng/mL), simvastatin only (125 ng/mL), simvastatin given 6 hrs prior to LPS (S-L), simvastatin given 6 hrs post-LPS (L-S), and simvastatin and LPS given simultaneously (L+S). Explants were incubated for 24 hrs. Multiplex ELISA for cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; soluble cytokine receptors: sIL-1R2, sIL-6R, sTNFR1, and R2; MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, and 10); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was performed on tissue culture supernatants. Pairwise comparison between different groups was conducted by least square mean estimates. Results: Compared with controls, LPS stimulation increased cytokine production and their tissue bioavailability (measured as the molar ratio of cytokine to its soluble receptor), thus confirming membrane immune reactivity (P < 0.01). Pre-treatment with simvastatin (S-L) reduced IL-6 (P = 0.02), TNF-α (P = 0.02), and MMP-9 (P = 0.01); post-treatment (L-S) reduced IL-1β (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.04), while simultaneous treatment (L+S) did not reduce any of the cytokines tested. Simvastatin reduced the molar ratio of TNF-α/sTNFR1 or R2 and IL-1β/sIL-1R2 (P = 0.01 and 0.04 in S-L group; P = 0.01 and 0.004 in L-S group, respectively). S-L additionally reduced MMP-9/TIMP-2 molar ratio (P = 0.0007). Conclusions: Simvastatin downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory response and restores homeostasis between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Simvastatin may reduce fetal inflammatory response associated with infection-induced preterm birth.

AB - Problem: Inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to preterm labor pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to test anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin in human fetal membranes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Method of study: Normal term human fetal membrane explants (n = 11) were allocated to one of the six study groups: control, LPS only (100 ng/mL), simvastatin only (125 ng/mL), simvastatin given 6 hrs prior to LPS (S-L), simvastatin given 6 hrs post-LPS (L-S), and simvastatin and LPS given simultaneously (L+S). Explants were incubated for 24 hrs. Multiplex ELISA for cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; soluble cytokine receptors: sIL-1R2, sIL-6R, sTNFR1, and R2; MMPs (1, 2, 7, 9, and 10); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was performed on tissue culture supernatants. Pairwise comparison between different groups was conducted by least square mean estimates. Results: Compared with controls, LPS stimulation increased cytokine production and their tissue bioavailability (measured as the molar ratio of cytokine to its soluble receptor), thus confirming membrane immune reactivity (P < 0.01). Pre-treatment with simvastatin (S-L) reduced IL-6 (P = 0.02), TNF-α (P = 0.02), and MMP-9 (P = 0.01); post-treatment (L-S) reduced IL-1β (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.04), while simultaneous treatment (L+S) did not reduce any of the cytokines tested. Simvastatin reduced the molar ratio of TNF-α/sTNFR1 or R2 and IL-1β/sIL-1R2 (P = 0.01 and 0.04 in S-L group; P = 0.01 and 0.004 in L-S group, respectively). S-L additionally reduced MMP-9/TIMP-2 molar ratio (P = 0.0007). Conclusions: Simvastatin downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory response and restores homeostasis between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Simvastatin may reduce fetal inflammatory response associated with infection-induced preterm birth.

KW - Cytokines

KW - Matrix metalloproteinases

KW - Pregnancy

KW - Preterm birth

KW - Preterm labor

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U2 - 10.1111/aji.12372

DO - 10.1111/aji.12372

M3 - Article

JO - American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology

JF - American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology

SN - 1046-7408

ER -