The factor structure of the CES-D in two surveys of elderly Mexican Americans

Todd Q. Miller, Kyriakos S. Markides, Sandra A. Black

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


The factor structure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) has not been well defined among elderly Mexican Americans. Although most prior research suggests the CES-D has four factors, prior research also suggests that the factor structure of the CES-D may vary with culture. In addition, previous theory and research on other depression inventories suggest only two factors: a general depression factor and a psychological well-being factor. The current study determines the number of factors for the CES-D in the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies (H-EPESE) survey (N = 2,536) and in a previous study of elderly Mexican Americans living in San Antonio, Texas (N = 330). The factor analytic results argue strongly for the two-factor model, and this model is the only structure that yielded consistent results across subgroups (e.g., male vs female or Spanish vs English language of interview). We conclude that the CES-D has only two factors among elderly Mexican Americans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S259-S269
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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