The Impact of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Mono- And Coinfection on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

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Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have recently been linked to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). However, the impact of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on risk of HDP is not well understood. This study determined the impact of gonorrhea and gonorrhea coinfection on HDP and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in a population with a high screening rate and presumed treatment. Methods. This retrospective study included 29 821 singleton births between 2016 and 2021. The STI testing results, demographic variables, and pregnancy outcomes were identified from electronic health records. The HDP were primary outcomes of interest including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and superimposed preeclampsia. We further examined preeclampsia subtypes defined by severe features and gestational age of delivery (term and preterm preeclampsia). Secondary outcomes included preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and preterm delivery. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Models were adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and smoking. Results. Gonorrhea screening occurred in 95% of the population. Gonorrhea increased the odds of preterm preeclampsia (adjusted OR [ORadj.], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.02–3.73) and preterm birth (ORadj., 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22–2.60). Furthermore, gonorrhea-chlamydia coinfection was associated with preterm birth (ORadj., 1.77; 95% CI, 1.03–3.04). However, results were similar when we examined gonorrhea monoinfection (ORadj., 1.76; 95% CI, 1.04–2.97). Conclusions. Among a diverse population of pregnant individuals, gonorrhea increased odds of preterm preeclampsia and preterm delivery Further research is needed to determine the burden of STIs on HDP, including investigations into biological effects during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofad220
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2023


  • gonorrhea
  • preeclampsia
  • preterm birth
  • sexually transmitted infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Infectious Diseases


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