Background. Several single-center reports suggest that vascular resection (VR) during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma is feasible without affecting early postoperative mortality or morbidity. Our objective is to review the outcomes associated with VR during PD using a large multicenter data source. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User Files for 2005-2009. All patients undergoing PD for a postoperative diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were included. Forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association between VR during PD and 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity after adjustment for patient demographics and comorbidities. Results. 3,582 patients were included for analysis, 281 (7.8 %) of whom underwent VR during PD. VR during PD was associated with significantly greater risk-adjusted 30-day postoperative mortality >5.7 % with VR versus 2.9 % without VR, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22-3.73, P = 0.008] and overall morbidity (39.9 % with VR versus 33.3 % without VR, AOR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05-1.75, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in risk-adjusted postoperative mortality or morbidity between those patients undergoing VR by the primary surgical team versus those patients undergoing VR by a vascular surgical team. Conclusions. Contrary to the findings of several previously published single-center analyses, the current study demonstrates increased 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality in PD with VR when compared with PD alone.
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