The presence of nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia

K. B. Chua, S. K. Lam, K. J. Goh, P. S. Hooi, Thomas Ksiazek, A. Kamarulzaman, J. Olson, C. T. Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To study the excretion of Nipah virus in the upper respiratory secretions and urine of infected patients in relation to other clinical features. Methods: Isolation of Nipah virus from the respiratory secretions and urine was made in Vero cells and identified by indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-Hendra specific hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Results: During the peak outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, Nipah virus was isolated from the upper respiratory secretions and urine in eight of 20 patients who were virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be infected with the virus. From these eight patients, Nipah virus was isolated from six throat swab specimens, three urine specimens and only one nasal swab specimen. The positive virus isolation rate was related to the collection of these specimens during the early phase of the illness (P=0.068). The presence of serum anti-Nipah specific IgM appeared to reduce the chance of isolating the virus (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in the isolation rate with respect to the age, gender, ethnic group and clinical features associated with grave prognosis and mortality outcome of the patients. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to be infected from secretions of infected patients, but epidemiological survey on close contacts so far did not suggest that human-to-human transmission is common.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-43
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Infection
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nipah Virus
Malaysia
Encephalitis
Disease Outbreaks
Urine
Viruses
Specimen Handling
Vero Cells
Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
Ascitic Fluid
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Pharynx
Nose
Ethnic Groups
Goats
Immunoglobulin M
Mortality
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

The presence of nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. / Chua, K. B.; Lam, S. K.; Goh, K. J.; Hooi, P. S.; Ksiazek, Thomas; Kamarulzaman, A.; Olson, J.; Tan, C. T.

In: Journal of Infection, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2001, p. 40-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chua, K. B. ; Lam, S. K. ; Goh, K. J. ; Hooi, P. S. ; Ksiazek, Thomas ; Kamarulzaman, A. ; Olson, J. ; Tan, C. T. / The presence of nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. In: Journal of Infection. 2001 ; Vol. 42, No. 1. pp. 40-43.
@article{6943b533b7464449ba41d37cef81feba,
title = "The presence of nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia",
abstract = "Objectives: To study the excretion of Nipah virus in the upper respiratory secretions and urine of infected patients in relation to other clinical features. Methods: Isolation of Nipah virus from the respiratory secretions and urine was made in Vero cells and identified by indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-Hendra specific hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Results: During the peak outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, Nipah virus was isolated from the upper respiratory secretions and urine in eight of 20 patients who were virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be infected with the virus. From these eight patients, Nipah virus was isolated from six throat swab specimens, three urine specimens and only one nasal swab specimen. The positive virus isolation rate was related to the collection of these specimens during the early phase of the illness (P=0.068). The presence of serum anti-Nipah specific IgM appeared to reduce the chance of isolating the virus (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in the isolation rate with respect to the age, gender, ethnic group and clinical features associated with grave prognosis and mortality outcome of the patients. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to be infected from secretions of infected patients, but epidemiological survey on close contacts so far did not suggest that human-to-human transmission is common.",
author = "Chua, {K. B.} and Lam, {S. K.} and Goh, {K. J.} and Hooi, {P. S.} and Thomas Ksiazek and A. Kamarulzaman and J. Olson and Tan, {C. T.}",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1053/jinf.2000.0782",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "40--43",
journal = "Journal of Infection",
issn = "0163-4453",
publisher = "W.B. Saunders Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The presence of nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia

AU - Chua, K. B.

AU - Lam, S. K.

AU - Goh, K. J.

AU - Hooi, P. S.

AU - Ksiazek, Thomas

AU - Kamarulzaman, A.

AU - Olson, J.

AU - Tan, C. T.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Objectives: To study the excretion of Nipah virus in the upper respiratory secretions and urine of infected patients in relation to other clinical features. Methods: Isolation of Nipah virus from the respiratory secretions and urine was made in Vero cells and identified by indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-Hendra specific hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Results: During the peak outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, Nipah virus was isolated from the upper respiratory secretions and urine in eight of 20 patients who were virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be infected with the virus. From these eight patients, Nipah virus was isolated from six throat swab specimens, three urine specimens and only one nasal swab specimen. The positive virus isolation rate was related to the collection of these specimens during the early phase of the illness (P=0.068). The presence of serum anti-Nipah specific IgM appeared to reduce the chance of isolating the virus (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in the isolation rate with respect to the age, gender, ethnic group and clinical features associated with grave prognosis and mortality outcome of the patients. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to be infected from secretions of infected patients, but epidemiological survey on close contacts so far did not suggest that human-to-human transmission is common.

AB - Objectives: To study the excretion of Nipah virus in the upper respiratory secretions and urine of infected patients in relation to other clinical features. Methods: Isolation of Nipah virus from the respiratory secretions and urine was made in Vero cells and identified by indirect immunofluorescence assay using anti-Hendra specific hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Results: During the peak outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, Nipah virus was isolated from the upper respiratory secretions and urine in eight of 20 patients who were virologically and/or serologically confirmed to be infected with the virus. From these eight patients, Nipah virus was isolated from six throat swab specimens, three urine specimens and only one nasal swab specimen. The positive virus isolation rate was related to the collection of these specimens during the early phase of the illness (P=0.068). The presence of serum anti-Nipah specific IgM appeared to reduce the chance of isolating the virus (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in the isolation rate with respect to the age, gender, ethnic group and clinical features associated with grave prognosis and mortality outcome of the patients. Conclusion: This study shows that it is possible to be infected from secretions of infected patients, but epidemiological survey on close contacts so far did not suggest that human-to-human transmission is common.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034930607&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034930607&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1053/jinf.2000.0782

DO - 10.1053/jinf.2000.0782

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 40

EP - 43

JO - Journal of Infection

JF - Journal of Infection

SN - 0163-4453

IS - 1

ER -