RNA replication of positive-strand (+)RNA viruses requires the lipids present in intracellular membranes, the sites of which viral replicases associate with. However, the direct effects of membrane lipids on viral replicases are still poorly understood. Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) protein A, which associates with mitochondrial membranes, is the sole replicase required for RNA replication. Here, we report that WhNV protein A binds to RNA1 in a cooperative manner. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane lipids (MMLs) stimulated the RNA binding activity and cooperativity of protein A, and such stimulations exhibited strong selectivity for distinct phospholipids. Interestingly, MMLs stimulated the RNA-binding cooperativity only at higher protein A concentrations. Further investigation showed that MMLs stimulate the RNA binding of protein A by promoting its self-interaction. Finally, manipulating MML metabolism affected the protein A-induced RNA1 recruitment in cells. Together, our findings reveal the direct effects of membrane lipids on the RNA binding activity of a nodaviral replicase.
- Mitochondrial membrane lipids
- Protein A
- RNA binding
- Wuhan nodavirus
ASJC Scopus subject areas