The role of testosterone replacement therapy and statin use, and their combination, in prostate cancer

David S. Lopez, Danmeng Huang, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Steven Canfield, Mohit Khera, Jacques G. Baillargeon, Yong Fang Kuo, M. Kristen Peek, Elizabeth A. Platz, Kyriakos Markides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: Previous studies have reported conflicting results in the associations of testosterone replacement therapy (TTh) and statins use with prostate cancer (PCa). However, the combination of these treatments with PCa stage and grade at diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and by race/ethnicity remains unclear. Methods: We identified non-Hispanic White (NHW, N = 58,576), non-Hispanic Black (NHB, n = 9,703) and Hispanic (n = 4,898) men diagnosed with PCa in SEER-Medicare data 2007–2011. Pre-diagnostic prescription of TTh and statins was ascertained for this analysis. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of TTh and statins use with PCa stage and grade and PCSM. Results: 22.5% used statins alone, 1.2% used TTh alone, and 0.8% used both. TTh and statins were independently, inversely associated with PCa advanced stage and high grade. TTh plus statins was associated with 44% lower odds of advanced stage PCa (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.91). As expected, similar inverse associations were present in NHWs as the overall cohort is mostly comprised NHW men. In Hispanic men, statin use with or without TTh was inversely associated with aggressive PCa. Conclusions: Pre-diagnostic use of TTh or statins, independent or in combination, was inversely associated with aggressive PCa, including in NHW and Hispanics men, but was not with PCSM. The findings for use of statins with aggressive PCa are consistent with cohort studies. Future prospective studies are needed to explore the independent inverse association of TTh and the combined inverse association of TTh plus statins on fatal PCa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)965-976
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Ethnicity
  • Prostate cancer
  • Race
  • Statins
  • Testosterone therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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