Syntaxins A and B are nervous system-specific proteins implicated in the docking of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. A family of syntaxin-related proteins from rat has been identified that shares 23%-84% amino acid identity. Each of the six syntaxins terminate with a carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain that anchors the protein on the cytoplasmic surface of cellular membranes. The syntaxins display a broad tissue distribution and, when expressed in COS cells, are targeted to different subcellular compartments. Microinjection studies suggest that the nervous system-specific syntaxin 1A is important for calcium-regulated secretion from neuroendocrine PC12 cells. These results indicate that the syntaxins are a family of receptors for intracellular transport vesicles and that each target membrane may be identified by a specific member of the syntaxin family.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology