The temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss following experimental spinal cord injury

Effect of antioxidant therapy on cell death and functional recovery

Xiang Ling, Feng Bao, Hao Qian, Danxia Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced overproduction of endogenous deleterious substances triggers secondary cell death to spread damage beyond the initial injury site. Substantial experimental evidence supports reactive species (RS) as important mediators of secondary cell death after SCI. This study established quantitative temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss, characterized apoptosis, and evaluated the effectiveness of a broad spectrum RS scavenger - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) and a combination of MnTBAP plus nitro-L-arginine to prevent cell loss and neurological dysfunction following contusion SCI to the rat spinal cord.Results: By counting the number of surviving cells in spinal cord sections removed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week post-SCI and at 0 - 4 mm from the epicenter, the temporal and spatial profiles of motoneuron and glia loss were established. Motoneurons continued to disappear over a week and the losses decreased with increasing distance from the epicenter. Significant glia loss peaked at 24 to 48 h post-SCI, but only at sections 0-1.5 mm from the epicenter. Apoptosis of neurons, motoneurons and astrocytes was characterized morphologically by double immuno-staining with cell-specific markers and apoptosis indicators and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. DNA laddering, ELISA quantitation and caspase-3 activation in the spinal cord tissue indicated more intense DNA fragments and greater caspase-3 activation in the epicenter than at 1 and 2 cm away from the epicenter or the sham-operated sections. Intraperitoneal treatment with MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduced motoneuron and cell loss and apoptosis in the gray and white matter compared with the vehicle-treated group. MnTBAP alone significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and improved functional recovery as evaluated by three behavioral tests.Conclusions: Our temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss provide data bases for determining the time and location for pharmacological intervention. Our demonstration that apoptosis follows SCI and that MnTBAP alone or MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduces apoptosis correlates SCI-induced apoptosis with RS overproduction. MnTBAP significantly improved functional recovery, which strongly supports the important role of antioxidant therapy in treating SCI and the candidacy of MnTBAP for such treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number146
JournalBMC Neuroscience
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 18 2013

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord Injuries
Cell Death
Antioxidants
Apoptosis
Motor Neurons
Arginine
Spinal Cord
Therapeutics
Neuroglia
Caspase 3
Cell Count
manganese(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin
Contusions
DNA
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Astrocytes
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Databases
Pharmacology
Staining and Labeling

Keywords

  • Antioxidant therapy
  • Apoptotic cell death
  • Behavioral test
  • Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin
  • Nitro-L-arginine
  • Secondary spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

The temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss following experimental spinal cord injury : Effect of antioxidant therapy on cell death and functional recovery. / Ling, Xiang; Bao, Feng; Qian, Hao; Liu, Danxia.

In: BMC Neuroscience, Vol. 14, 146, 18.11.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced overproduction of endogenous deleterious substances triggers secondary cell death to spread damage beyond the initial injury site. Substantial experimental evidence supports reactive species (RS) as important mediators of secondary cell death after SCI. This study established quantitative temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss, characterized apoptosis, and evaluated the effectiveness of a broad spectrum RS scavenger - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) and a combination of MnTBAP plus nitro-L-arginine to prevent cell loss and neurological dysfunction following contusion SCI to the rat spinal cord.Results: By counting the number of surviving cells in spinal cord sections removed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week post-SCI and at 0 - 4 mm from the epicenter, the temporal and spatial profiles of motoneuron and glia loss were established. Motoneurons continued to disappear over a week and the losses decreased with increasing distance from the epicenter. Significant glia loss peaked at 24 to 48 h post-SCI, but only at sections 0-1.5 mm from the epicenter. Apoptosis of neurons, motoneurons and astrocytes was characterized morphologically by double immuno-staining with cell-specific markers and apoptosis indicators and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. DNA laddering, ELISA quantitation and caspase-3 activation in the spinal cord tissue indicated more intense DNA fragments and greater caspase-3 activation in the epicenter than at 1 and 2 cm away from the epicenter or the sham-operated sections. Intraperitoneal treatment with MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduced motoneuron and cell loss and apoptosis in the gray and white matter compared with the vehicle-treated group. MnTBAP alone significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and improved functional recovery as evaluated by three behavioral tests.Conclusions: Our temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss provide data bases for determining the time and location for pharmacological intervention. Our demonstration that apoptosis follows SCI and that MnTBAP alone or MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduces apoptosis correlates SCI-induced apoptosis with RS overproduction. MnTBAP significantly improved functional recovery, which strongly supports the important role of antioxidant therapy in treating SCI and the candidacy of MnTBAP for such treatment.",
keywords = "Antioxidant therapy, Apoptotic cell death, Behavioral test, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, Nitro-L-arginine, Secondary spinal cord injury",
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T2 - Effect of antioxidant therapy on cell death and functional recovery

AU - Ling, Xiang

AU - Bao, Feng

AU - Qian, Hao

AU - Liu, Danxia

PY - 2013/11/18

Y1 - 2013/11/18

N2 - Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced overproduction of endogenous deleterious substances triggers secondary cell death to spread damage beyond the initial injury site. Substantial experimental evidence supports reactive species (RS) as important mediators of secondary cell death after SCI. This study established quantitative temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss, characterized apoptosis, and evaluated the effectiveness of a broad spectrum RS scavenger - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) and a combination of MnTBAP plus nitro-L-arginine to prevent cell loss and neurological dysfunction following contusion SCI to the rat spinal cord.Results: By counting the number of surviving cells in spinal cord sections removed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week post-SCI and at 0 - 4 mm from the epicenter, the temporal and spatial profiles of motoneuron and glia loss were established. Motoneurons continued to disappear over a week and the losses decreased with increasing distance from the epicenter. Significant glia loss peaked at 24 to 48 h post-SCI, but only at sections 0-1.5 mm from the epicenter. Apoptosis of neurons, motoneurons and astrocytes was characterized morphologically by double immuno-staining with cell-specific markers and apoptosis indicators and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. DNA laddering, ELISA quantitation and caspase-3 activation in the spinal cord tissue indicated more intense DNA fragments and greater caspase-3 activation in the epicenter than at 1 and 2 cm away from the epicenter or the sham-operated sections. Intraperitoneal treatment with MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduced motoneuron and cell loss and apoptosis in the gray and white matter compared with the vehicle-treated group. MnTBAP alone significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and improved functional recovery as evaluated by three behavioral tests.Conclusions: Our temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss provide data bases for determining the time and location for pharmacological intervention. Our demonstration that apoptosis follows SCI and that MnTBAP alone or MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduces apoptosis correlates SCI-induced apoptosis with RS overproduction. MnTBAP significantly improved functional recovery, which strongly supports the important role of antioxidant therapy in treating SCI and the candidacy of MnTBAP for such treatment.

AB - Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced overproduction of endogenous deleterious substances triggers secondary cell death to spread damage beyond the initial injury site. Substantial experimental evidence supports reactive species (RS) as important mediators of secondary cell death after SCI. This study established quantitative temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss, characterized apoptosis, and evaluated the effectiveness of a broad spectrum RS scavenger - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) and a combination of MnTBAP plus nitro-L-arginine to prevent cell loss and neurological dysfunction following contusion SCI to the rat spinal cord.Results: By counting the number of surviving cells in spinal cord sections removed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week post-SCI and at 0 - 4 mm from the epicenter, the temporal and spatial profiles of motoneuron and glia loss were established. Motoneurons continued to disappear over a week and the losses decreased with increasing distance from the epicenter. Significant glia loss peaked at 24 to 48 h post-SCI, but only at sections 0-1.5 mm from the epicenter. Apoptosis of neurons, motoneurons and astrocytes was characterized morphologically by double immuno-staining with cell-specific markers and apoptosis indicators and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. DNA laddering, ELISA quantitation and caspase-3 activation in the spinal cord tissue indicated more intense DNA fragments and greater caspase-3 activation in the epicenter than at 1 and 2 cm away from the epicenter or the sham-operated sections. Intraperitoneal treatment with MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduced motoneuron and cell loss and apoptosis in the gray and white matter compared with the vehicle-treated group. MnTBAP alone significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and improved functional recovery as evaluated by three behavioral tests.Conclusions: Our temporal and spatial profiles of cell loss provide data bases for determining the time and location for pharmacological intervention. Our demonstration that apoptosis follows SCI and that MnTBAP alone or MnTBAP + nitro-L-arginine significantly reduces apoptosis correlates SCI-induced apoptosis with RS overproduction. MnTBAP significantly improved functional recovery, which strongly supports the important role of antioxidant therapy in treating SCI and the candidacy of MnTBAP for such treatment.

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KW - Apoptotic cell death

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KW - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin

KW - Nitro-L-arginine

KW - Secondary spinal cord injury

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