A 54-year-old male was found to have neuroendocrine carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) demonstrated dilated right ventricle and right atrium, and severe tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation. Three-dimensional (3D) TTE en-face views showed thickened, retracted, and fixed tricuspid valve and pulmonic valve which remained widely open throughout the cardiac cycle. 3D TTE, particularly en-face views, demonstrates incremental value over 2D TTE by providing precise valvular anatomic details comparable to surgical findings. 3D TTE also offers a unique opportunity to assess all four valves simultaneously with en-face views to delineate their relationships with surrounding structures.
- carcinoid heart disease
- pulmonary regurgitation
- three-dimensional echocardiography
- tricuspid regurgitation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine