Time-dependent autoimmune response of dichloroacetyl chloride in female MRL +/+ mice

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21 Scopus citations


Welders are exposed to dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) when trichloroethene (TCE) is used as a degreasing agent. Human exposure to TCE and tetrachloroethane can also lead to formation of DCAC in situ through metabolism. Due to its strong acylating property, it can bind with cellular macromolecules and act as hapten and consequently may elicit autoimmune (AI) response. Earlier, we reported that both TCE and DCAC induce/accelerate AI response in MRL +/+ mice, and DCAC even at 50 fold lower concentration induced greater AI responses. These studied, however, were conducted at a single time point (six weeks of treatment) and therefore necessitate a time-dependent characterization of this DCAC-induced AI response. Female MRL +/+ were given ip treatments of 0.2 mmol/kg DCAC in 100 μl of corn oil every 4th day, while controls received an equal volume of corn oil only. DCAC treatment resulted in spleen weight increases at all time points whereas serum IgG showed significant increases at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of treatment. Serum autoantibodies, i.e., anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-single stranded DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin antibodies showed positive responses only after 4 weeks of treatment. However, the optimal responses were observed at 6 weeks and subsequently the responses diminished (at 8 weeks). The DCAC-specific antibodies showed a pattern similar to autoantibodies, i.e., an optimal response at 6 weeks of treatment. Our results thus suggest that DCAC under the current experimental conditions induces an optimal AI response at 6 weeks of treatment and further emphasize the usefulness of MRL +/+ mice in studying chemical-induced autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-277
Number of pages13
JournalImmunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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