Recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) results in the activation of innate signaling pathways that drive the innate immune response and ultimately shape the adaptive immune response. RepliVAX WN, a single-cycle flavivirus (SCFV) vaccine candidate derived from West Nile virus (WNV), is intrinsically adjuvanted with multiple PAMPs and induces a vigorous anti-WNV humoral response. However, the innate mechanisms that link pattern recognition and development of vigorous antigen-specific B cell responses are not completely understood. Moreover, the roles of individual PRR signaling pathways in shaping the B cell response to this live attenuated SCFV vaccine have not been established. We examined and compared the role of TLR3-and MyD88-dependent signaling in the development of anti-WNV-specific antibody-secreting cell responses and memory B cell responses induced by RepliVAX WN. We found that MyD88 deficiency significantly diminished B cell responses by impairing B cell activation, development of germinal centers (GC), and the generation of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and memory B cells (MBCs). In contrast, TLR3 deficiency had more effect on maintenance of GCs and development of LLPCs, whereas differentiation of MBCs was unaffected. Our data suggest that both TLR3-and MyD88-dependent signaling are involved in the intrinsic adjuvanting of RepliVAXWNand differentially contribute to the development of vigorous WNV-specific antibody and B cell memory responses following immunization with this novel SCFV vaccine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science