Tobacco, Alcohol, and the Environment

Jorge E. Tolosa, George Saade

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Globally, 22% of world's adult population aged 15 years and over are estimated to be current tobacco smokers, including 36% of men and 8% of women. Rates of current cigarette use in 2012-2013 among pregnant women aged 15 to 44 were 19.9 percent in first trimester, 13.4 percent in second trimester, and 12.8 percent in third trimester. In mother, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with pneumonia, hypertension, hepatitis and cirrhosis, among other serious medical complications. Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by fetal growth restriction, central nervous system abnormalities and facial dysmorphology, with an average IQ of 70. It has been estimated that risk of fetal alcohol syndrome is 20% if the pregnant woman consumes four drinks per day, increasing to 50% with eight drinks per day. Exposure to heat and hot environments can occur in many occupations and industries. Few studies specifically address hazards of occupational heat stress in pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProtocols for High-Risk Pregnancies
Subtitle of host publicationAn Evidence-Based Approach: Sixth Edition
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9781119001256
ISBN (Print)9781119000877
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Cirrhosis
  • Environments
  • Facial dysmorphology
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Heat stress
  • Hepatitis
  • Hypertension
  • Pneumonia
  • Pregnant women
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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