Togaviridae1

E. G. Westaway, M. A. Brinton, S. Ya Gaidamovich, M. C. Horzinek, A. Igarashi, L. Kääriäinen, D. K. Lvov, J. S. Porterfield, P. K. Russell, D. W. Trent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations

Abstract

The family Togaviridae comprises four genera: Alphavirus (with 26 species), Rubivirus (one species), Pestivirus (three species), and Arterivirus (one species). The main characteristics of the member viruses are: (i) the virus particles are spherical, 50-70 nm in diameter, including an envelope with surface projections that incorporate two or three polypeptides, usually glycosylated; (ii) the nucleocapsid comprises a core protein and a single strand of positive-sense RNA, molecular weight about 4 × 106; where characterized, the RNA has an m7G 'cap' at the 5' end and is polyadenylated at the 3' end; (iii) maturation occurs by budding of spherical nucleocapsids 30-35 nm in diameter, with proven or presumed icosahedral symmetry, through cytoplasmic membranes. Where characterized, translation of structural proteins occurs on subgenomic messenger RNA(s); these appear to represent the 3' end of the genome. Nearly all alphavirus species are transmitted by mosquitoes. Transmission also occurs transovarially (Alphavirus) or transplacentally (Rubivirus and Pestivirus) Members of a genus are serologically related, but are not related to members of other genera.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-139
Number of pages15
JournalIntervirology
Volume24
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

Keywords

  • Alphavirus
  • Arterivirus
  • Pestivirus
  • Rubivirus
  • Togavirus
  • Viral taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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