Towards the Laboratory Maintenance of Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar, 1921), the Major Neotropical Vector of Sylvatic Yellow Fever

Adam Hendy, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Danielle Valério, Eduardo Hernandez-Acosta, Bárbara A. Chaves, Luís Felipe Alho da Silva, Rosa Amélia Gonçalves Santana, Andréia da Costa Paz, Matheus Mickael Mota Soares, Flamarion Prado Assunção, José Tenaçol Andes, Chiara Andolina, Vera Margarete Scarpassa, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Kathryn A. Hanley, Nikos Vasilakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys (Dyar, 1921), the major neotropical vector of sylvatic yellow fever virus, is notoriously difficult to maintain in captivity. It has never been reared beyond an F1 generation, and almost no experimental transmission studies have been performed with this species since the 1940s. Herein we describe installment hatching, artificial blood feeding, and forced-mating techniques that enabled us to produce small numbers of F3 generation Hg. janthinomys eggs for the first time. A total of 62.8% (1562/2486) F1 generation eggs hatched during ≤10 four-day cycles of immersion in a bamboo leaf infusion followed by partial drying. Hatching decreased to 20.1% (190/944) in the F2 generation for eggs laid by mosquitoes copulated by forced mating. More than 85% (79/92) female F2 mosquitoes fed on an artificial blood feeding system. While we were unable to maintain a laboratory colony of Hg. janthinomys past the F3 generation, our methods provide a foundation for experimental transmission studies with this species in a laboratory setting, a critical capacity in a region with hyper-endemic transmission of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, all posing a risk of spillback into a sylvatic cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number45
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Flaviviridae
  • Flavivirus
  • Haemagogus janthinomys
  • arbovirus
  • blood feeding
  • forced mating
  • sylvatic
  • yellow fever

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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