Biopsies from volunteers challenged with Cryptosporidium parvum were examined for transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). None of the prechallenge biopsies exhibited TGF-β. Seven of 12 volunteers with oocyst shedding expressed TGF-β versus 2 of 13 volunteers without detected oocysts. The association of TGF-β expression with oocyst excretion and the timing of symptoms suggests that TGF-β mediates intestinal healing.
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