Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants

Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study

Yvonne S. Sininger, Carmen G. Condon, Howard J. Hoffman, Amy J. Elliott, Hein J. Odendaal, Larry L. Burd, Michael M. Myers, William P. Fifer, Gary Hankins, Kimberly A. Dukes, Lisa M. Sullivan, Tara Tripp, Fay Robinson, Cheri Raffo, Julie M. Petersen, Rebecca A. Young, Cindy Mai, Elena Grillo, Travis Baker, Patti Folan & 62 others Gregory Toland, Michael Carmen, Hannah C. Kinney, Robin L. Haynes, Rebecca D. Folkerth, Ingrid A. Holm, Theonia Boyd, David S. Paterson, Hanno Steen, Kyriacos Markianos, Drucilla Roberts, Kevin G. Broadbelt, Richard G. Goldstein, Laura L. Nelsen, Jacob Cotton, Perri Jacobs, Amy J. Elliott, Larry Burd, Jyoti Angal, Jessica Gromer, H. Eugene Hoyme, Margaret Jackson, Luke Mack, Bradley B. Randall, Mary Ann Sens, Deborah Tobacco, Peter Van Eerden, Hendrik Odendaal, Colleen Wright, Lut Geerts, Greetje De Jong, Pawel Schubert, Shabbir Wadee, Johan Dempers, Elsie Burger, M. Med Forens Path, Janetta Harbron, Coen Groenewald, William Fifer, Michael Myers, Joseph Isler, Yvonne Sininger, JDavid Nugent, Carmen Condon, Margaret C. Shair, Tracy M.A. Thai, Marian Willinger, Dale Hereld, Howard J. Hoffman, Chuan Ming Li, Elizabeth Thom, Phillip Cato, James W. Collins, Terry Dwyer, George Macones, Philip A. May, Richard M. Pauli, Raymond W. Redline, Michael Varner, Tracy Thai, Joseph J. Violaris, Chuan Ming Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The Prenatal Alcohol and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirth Network, known as the ''Safe Passage Study,'' enrolled approximately 12,000 pregnant women from the United States and South Africa and followed the development of their babies through pregnancy and the infant's first year of life to investigate the role of prenatal alcohol exposure in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Purpose: Auditory system tests were included in the physiologic test battery used to study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurophysiology and neurodevelopment, as well as potential causal relationships between neurodevelopmental disorders and SIDS and/or stillbirth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe normative results when using the auditory test battery applied. Research Design: The test battery included the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Data were collected on individual ears of newborns and 1-month-old infants. Study Sample: From a cohort of 6,070 with auditory system exams, a normative subsample of 325 infants were selected who were not exposed prenatally to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or drugs nor were they preterm or low birthweight. The subsample is small relative to the overall study because of strict criteria for no exposure to substances known to be associated with SIDS or stillbirth and the exclusion of preterm and low birthweight infants. Expectant mothers were recruited from general maternity at two comprehensive clinical sites, in the northern plains in the United States and in Cape Town, South Africa. These populations were selected for study because both were known to be at high-risk for SIDS and stillbirth. Data Collection and Analysis: ABR and TEOAE recordings were stored electronically. Peak latency and amplitude analysis of ABRs were determined by study personnel, and results were evaluated for differences by age, sex, test site, race, and ear (left versus right). Results: TEOAE findings were consistent with existing literature including the increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) over the first month of life. The SNR increase is due to an increase in amplitude of the emission. TEOAE amplitude asymmetry favoring the right ear was found, whereas SNR asymmetry was not, perhaps because of the small sample size. A nonsignificant trend toward larger responses in female babies was found; a result that is generally statistically significant in studies with larger samples. Latencies were found to be shorter in ABRs elicited in the right ear with amplitudes that were slightly bigger on average. An expected decrease in wave V latency was observed from birth to 1-month of age, but the finding was of borderline significance (p = 0.058).Conclusions: Onemonthis ashort time to judge developmentof the auditorysystem; however,theABR and TEOAE findings were consistent with current literature. We conclude that the auditory system data acquired for the Safe Passage Study, as refiected in the data obtained from this cohort of unexposed infants, is consistent with published reports of these auditory system measures in the general population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)748-763
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Audiology
Volume29
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

Fingerprint

Sudden Infant Death
Stillbirth
Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potentials
Alcohols
Newborn Infant
Ear
South Africa
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Neurophysiology
Pregnancy Outcome
Information Systems
Smoke
Tobacco Products
Sex Characteristics
Sample Size
Population
Noise
Pregnant Women
Research Design
Mothers

Keywords

  • Auditory brainstem response
  • Sudden infant death syndrome
  • Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Speech and Hearing

Cite this

Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants : Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study. / Sininger, Yvonne S.; Condon, Carmen G.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Elliott, Amy J.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Burd, Larry L.; Myers, Michael M.; Fifer, William P.; Hankins, Gary; Dukes, Kimberly A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Tripp, Tara; Robinson, Fay; Raffo, Cheri; Petersen, Julie M.; Young, Rebecca A.; Mai, Cindy; Grillo, Elena; Baker, Travis; Folan, Patti; Toland, Gregory; Carmen, Michael; Kinney, Hannah C.; Haynes, Robin L.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Boyd, Theonia; Paterson, David S.; Steen, Hanno; Markianos, Kyriacos; Roberts, Drucilla; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Goldstein, Richard G.; Nelsen, Laura L.; Cotton, Jacob; Jacobs, Perri; Elliott, Amy J.; Burd, Larry; Angal, Jyoti; Gromer, Jessica; Eugene Hoyme, H.; Jackson, Margaret; Mack, Luke; Randall, Bradley B.; Sens, Mary Ann; Tobacco, Deborah; Van Eerden, Peter; Odendaal, Hendrik; Wright, Colleen; Geerts, Lut; De Jong, Greetje; Schubert, Pawel; Wadee, Shabbir; Dempers, Johan; Burger, Elsie; Med Forens Path, M.; Harbron, Janetta; Groenewald, Coen; Fifer, William; Myers, Michael; Isler, Joseph; Sininger, Yvonne; Nugent, JDavid; Condon, Carmen; Shair, Margaret C.; Thai, Tracy M.A.; Willinger, Marian; Hereld, Dale; Hoffman, Howard J.; Li, Chuan Ming; Thom, Elizabeth; Cato, Phillip; Collins, James W.; Dwyer, Terry; Macones, George; May, Philip A.; Pauli, Richard M.; Redline, Raymond W.; Varner, Michael; Thai, Tracy; Violaris, Joseph J.; Li, Chuan Ming.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, Vol. 29, No. 8, 01.09.2018, p. 748-763.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sininger, YS, Condon, CG, Hoffman, HJ, Elliott, AJ, Odendaal, HJ, Burd, LL, Myers, MM, Fifer, WP, Hankins, G, Dukes, KA, Sullivan, LM, Tripp, T, Robinson, F, Raffo, C, Petersen, JM, Young, RA, Mai, C, Grillo, E, Baker, T, Folan, P, Toland, G, Carmen, M, Kinney, HC, Haynes, RL, Folkerth, RD, Holm, IA, Boyd, T, Paterson, DS, Steen, H, Markianos, K, Roberts, D, Broadbelt, KG, Goldstein, RG, Nelsen, LL, Cotton, J, Jacobs, P, Elliott, AJ, Burd, L, Angal, J, Gromer, J, Eugene Hoyme, H, Jackson, M, Mack, L, Randall, BB, Sens, MA, Tobacco, D, Van Eerden, P, Odendaal, H, Wright, C, Geerts, L, De Jong, G, Schubert, P, Wadee, S, Dempers, J, Burger, E, Med Forens Path, M, Harbron, J, Groenewald, C, Fifer, W, Myers, M, Isler, J, Sininger, Y, Nugent, JD, Condon, C, Shair, MC, Thai, TMA, Willinger, M, Hereld, D, Hoffman, HJ, Li, CM, Thom, E, Cato, P, Collins, JW, Dwyer, T, Macones, G, May, PA, Pauli, RM, Redline, RW, Varner, M, Thai, T, Violaris, JJ & Li, CM 2018, 'Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants: Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study', Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 748-763. https://doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.17043
Sininger, Yvonne S. ; Condon, Carmen G. ; Hoffman, Howard J. ; Elliott, Amy J. ; Odendaal, Hein J. ; Burd, Larry L. ; Myers, Michael M. ; Fifer, William P. ; Hankins, Gary ; Dukes, Kimberly A. ; Sullivan, Lisa M. ; Tripp, Tara ; Robinson, Fay ; Raffo, Cheri ; Petersen, Julie M. ; Young, Rebecca A. ; Mai, Cindy ; Grillo, Elena ; Baker, Travis ; Folan, Patti ; Toland, Gregory ; Carmen, Michael ; Kinney, Hannah C. ; Haynes, Robin L. ; Folkerth, Rebecca D. ; Holm, Ingrid A. ; Boyd, Theonia ; Paterson, David S. ; Steen, Hanno ; Markianos, Kyriacos ; Roberts, Drucilla ; Broadbelt, Kevin G. ; Goldstein, Richard G. ; Nelsen, Laura L. ; Cotton, Jacob ; Jacobs, Perri ; Elliott, Amy J. ; Burd, Larry ; Angal, Jyoti ; Gromer, Jessica ; Eugene Hoyme, H. ; Jackson, Margaret ; Mack, Luke ; Randall, Bradley B. ; Sens, Mary Ann ; Tobacco, Deborah ; Van Eerden, Peter ; Odendaal, Hendrik ; Wright, Colleen ; Geerts, Lut ; De Jong, Greetje ; Schubert, Pawel ; Wadee, Shabbir ; Dempers, Johan ; Burger, Elsie ; Med Forens Path, M. ; Harbron, Janetta ; Groenewald, Coen ; Fifer, William ; Myers, Michael ; Isler, Joseph ; Sininger, Yvonne ; Nugent, JDavid ; Condon, Carmen ; Shair, Margaret C. ; Thai, Tracy M.A. ; Willinger, Marian ; Hereld, Dale ; Hoffman, Howard J. ; Li, Chuan Ming ; Thom, Elizabeth ; Cato, Phillip ; Collins, James W. ; Dwyer, Terry ; Macones, George ; May, Philip A. ; Pauli, Richard M. ; Redline, Raymond W. ; Varner, Michael ; Thai, Tracy ; Violaris, Joseph J. ; Li, Chuan Ming. / Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants : Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study. In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 2018 ; Vol. 29, No. 8. pp. 748-763.
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title = "Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants: Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study",
abstract = "Background: The Prenatal Alcohol and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirth Network, known as the ''Safe Passage Study,'' enrolled approximately 12,000 pregnant women from the United States and South Africa and followed the development of their babies through pregnancy and the infant's first year of life to investigate the role of prenatal alcohol exposure in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Purpose: Auditory system tests were included in the physiologic test battery used to study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurophysiology and neurodevelopment, as well as potential causal relationships between neurodevelopmental disorders and SIDS and/or stillbirth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe normative results when using the auditory test battery applied. Research Design: The test battery included the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Data were collected on individual ears of newborns and 1-month-old infants. Study Sample: From a cohort of 6,070 with auditory system exams, a normative subsample of 325 infants were selected who were not exposed prenatally to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or drugs nor were they preterm or low birthweight. The subsample is small relative to the overall study because of strict criteria for no exposure to substances known to be associated with SIDS or stillbirth and the exclusion of preterm and low birthweight infants. Expectant mothers were recruited from general maternity at two comprehensive clinical sites, in the northern plains in the United States and in Cape Town, South Africa. These populations were selected for study because both were known to be at high-risk for SIDS and stillbirth. Data Collection and Analysis: ABR and TEOAE recordings were stored electronically. Peak latency and amplitude analysis of ABRs were determined by study personnel, and results were evaluated for differences by age, sex, test site, race, and ear (left versus right). Results: TEOAE findings were consistent with existing literature including the increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) over the first month of life. The SNR increase is due to an increase in amplitude of the emission. TEOAE amplitude asymmetry favoring the right ear was found, whereas SNR asymmetry was not, perhaps because of the small sample size. A nonsignificant trend toward larger responses in female babies was found; a result that is generally statistically significant in studies with larger samples. Latencies were found to be shorter in ABRs elicited in the right ear with amplitudes that were slightly bigger on average. An expected decrease in wave V latency was observed from birth to 1-month of age, but the finding was of borderline significance (p = 0.058).Conclusions: Onemonthis ashort time to judge developmentof the auditorysystem; however,theABR and TEOAE findings were consistent with current literature. We conclude that the auditory system data acquired for the Safe Passage Study, as refiected in the data obtained from this cohort of unexposed infants, is consistent with published reports of these auditory system measures in the general population.",
keywords = "Auditory brainstem response, Sudden infant death syndrome, Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions",
author = "Sininger, {Yvonne S.} and Condon, {Carmen G.} and Hoffman, {Howard J.} and Elliott, {Amy J.} and Odendaal, {Hein J.} and Burd, {Larry L.} and Myers, {Michael M.} and Fifer, {William P.} and Gary Hankins and Dukes, {Kimberly A.} and Sullivan, {Lisa M.} and Tara Tripp and Fay Robinson and Cheri Raffo and Petersen, {Julie M.} and Young, {Rebecca A.} and Cindy Mai and Elena Grillo and Travis Baker and Patti Folan and Gregory Toland and Michael Carmen and Kinney, {Hannah C.} and Haynes, {Robin L.} and Folkerth, {Rebecca D.} and Holm, {Ingrid A.} and Theonia Boyd and Paterson, {David S.} and Hanno Steen and Kyriacos Markianos and Drucilla Roberts and Broadbelt, {Kevin G.} and Goldstein, {Richard G.} and Nelsen, {Laura L.} and Jacob Cotton and Perri Jacobs and Elliott, {Amy J.} and Larry Burd and Jyoti Angal and Jessica Gromer and {Eugene Hoyme}, H. and Margaret Jackson and Luke Mack and Randall, {Bradley B.} and Sens, {Mary Ann} and Deborah Tobacco and {Van Eerden}, Peter and Hendrik Odendaal and Colleen Wright and Lut Geerts and {De Jong}, Greetje and Pawel Schubert and Shabbir Wadee and Johan Dempers and Elsie Burger and {Med Forens Path}, M. and Janetta Harbron and Coen Groenewald and William Fifer and Michael Myers and Joseph Isler and Yvonne Sininger and JDavid Nugent and Carmen Condon and Shair, {Margaret C.} and Thai, {Tracy M.A.} and Marian Willinger and Dale Hereld and Hoffman, {Howard J.} and Li, {Chuan Ming} and Elizabeth Thom and Phillip Cato and Collins, {James W.} and Terry Dwyer and George Macones and May, {Philip A.} and Pauli, {Richard M.} and Redline, {Raymond W.} and Michael Varner and Tracy Thai and Violaris, {Joseph J.} and Li, {Chuan Ming}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in low-risk cohort of newborn and one-month-old infants

T2 - Assessment of infant auditory system physiology in the prenatal alcohol in sids and stillbirth network safe passage study

AU - Sininger, Yvonne S.

AU - Condon, Carmen G.

AU - Hoffman, Howard J.

AU - Elliott, Amy J.

AU - Odendaal, Hein J.

AU - Burd, Larry L.

AU - Myers, Michael M.

AU - Fifer, William P.

AU - Hankins, Gary

AU - Dukes, Kimberly A.

AU - Sullivan, Lisa M.

AU - Tripp, Tara

AU - Robinson, Fay

AU - Raffo, Cheri

AU - Petersen, Julie M.

AU - Young, Rebecca A.

AU - Mai, Cindy

AU - Grillo, Elena

AU - Baker, Travis

AU - Folan, Patti

AU - Toland, Gregory

AU - Carmen, Michael

AU - Kinney, Hannah C.

AU - Haynes, Robin L.

AU - Folkerth, Rebecca D.

AU - Holm, Ingrid A.

AU - Boyd, Theonia

AU - Paterson, David S.

AU - Steen, Hanno

AU - Markianos, Kyriacos

AU - Roberts, Drucilla

AU - Broadbelt, Kevin G.

AU - Goldstein, Richard G.

AU - Nelsen, Laura L.

AU - Cotton, Jacob

AU - Jacobs, Perri

AU - Elliott, Amy J.

AU - Burd, Larry

AU - Angal, Jyoti

AU - Gromer, Jessica

AU - Eugene Hoyme, H.

AU - Jackson, Margaret

AU - Mack, Luke

AU - Randall, Bradley B.

AU - Sens, Mary Ann

AU - Tobacco, Deborah

AU - Van Eerden, Peter

AU - Odendaal, Hendrik

AU - Wright, Colleen

AU - Geerts, Lut

AU - De Jong, Greetje

AU - Schubert, Pawel

AU - Wadee, Shabbir

AU - Dempers, Johan

AU - Burger, Elsie

AU - Med Forens Path, M.

AU - Harbron, Janetta

AU - Groenewald, Coen

AU - Fifer, William

AU - Myers, Michael

AU - Isler, Joseph

AU - Sininger, Yvonne

AU - Nugent, JDavid

AU - Condon, Carmen

AU - Shair, Margaret C.

AU - Thai, Tracy M.A.

AU - Willinger, Marian

AU - Hereld, Dale

AU - Hoffman, Howard J.

AU - Li, Chuan Ming

AU - Thom, Elizabeth

AU - Cato, Phillip

AU - Collins, James W.

AU - Dwyer, Terry

AU - Macones, George

AU - May, Philip A.

AU - Pauli, Richard M.

AU - Redline, Raymond W.

AU - Varner, Michael

AU - Thai, Tracy

AU - Violaris, Joseph J.

AU - Li, Chuan Ming

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Background: The Prenatal Alcohol and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirth Network, known as the ''Safe Passage Study,'' enrolled approximately 12,000 pregnant women from the United States and South Africa and followed the development of their babies through pregnancy and the infant's first year of life to investigate the role of prenatal alcohol exposure in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Purpose: Auditory system tests were included in the physiologic test battery used to study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurophysiology and neurodevelopment, as well as potential causal relationships between neurodevelopmental disorders and SIDS and/or stillbirth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe normative results when using the auditory test battery applied. Research Design: The test battery included the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Data were collected on individual ears of newborns and 1-month-old infants. Study Sample: From a cohort of 6,070 with auditory system exams, a normative subsample of 325 infants were selected who were not exposed prenatally to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or drugs nor were they preterm or low birthweight. The subsample is small relative to the overall study because of strict criteria for no exposure to substances known to be associated with SIDS or stillbirth and the exclusion of preterm and low birthweight infants. Expectant mothers were recruited from general maternity at two comprehensive clinical sites, in the northern plains in the United States and in Cape Town, South Africa. These populations were selected for study because both were known to be at high-risk for SIDS and stillbirth. Data Collection and Analysis: ABR and TEOAE recordings were stored electronically. Peak latency and amplitude analysis of ABRs were determined by study personnel, and results were evaluated for differences by age, sex, test site, race, and ear (left versus right). Results: TEOAE findings were consistent with existing literature including the increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) over the first month of life. The SNR increase is due to an increase in amplitude of the emission. TEOAE amplitude asymmetry favoring the right ear was found, whereas SNR asymmetry was not, perhaps because of the small sample size. A nonsignificant trend toward larger responses in female babies was found; a result that is generally statistically significant in studies with larger samples. Latencies were found to be shorter in ABRs elicited in the right ear with amplitudes that were slightly bigger on average. An expected decrease in wave V latency was observed from birth to 1-month of age, but the finding was of borderline significance (p = 0.058).Conclusions: Onemonthis ashort time to judge developmentof the auditorysystem; however,theABR and TEOAE findings were consistent with current literature. We conclude that the auditory system data acquired for the Safe Passage Study, as refiected in the data obtained from this cohort of unexposed infants, is consistent with published reports of these auditory system measures in the general population.

AB - Background: The Prenatal Alcohol and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirth Network, known as the ''Safe Passage Study,'' enrolled approximately 12,000 pregnant women from the United States and South Africa and followed the development of their babies through pregnancy and the infant's first year of life to investigate the role of prenatal alcohol exposure in the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Purpose: Auditory system tests were included in the physiologic test battery used to study the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neurophysiology and neurodevelopment, as well as potential causal relationships between neurodevelopmental disorders and SIDS and/or stillbirth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe normative results when using the auditory test battery applied. Research Design: The test battery included the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Data were collected on individual ears of newborns and 1-month-old infants. Study Sample: From a cohort of 6,070 with auditory system exams, a normative subsample of 325 infants were selected who were not exposed prenatally to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or drugs nor were they preterm or low birthweight. The subsample is small relative to the overall study because of strict criteria for no exposure to substances known to be associated with SIDS or stillbirth and the exclusion of preterm and low birthweight infants. Expectant mothers were recruited from general maternity at two comprehensive clinical sites, in the northern plains in the United States and in Cape Town, South Africa. These populations were selected for study because both were known to be at high-risk for SIDS and stillbirth. Data Collection and Analysis: ABR and TEOAE recordings were stored electronically. Peak latency and amplitude analysis of ABRs were determined by study personnel, and results were evaluated for differences by age, sex, test site, race, and ear (left versus right). Results: TEOAE findings were consistent with existing literature including the increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) over the first month of life. The SNR increase is due to an increase in amplitude of the emission. TEOAE amplitude asymmetry favoring the right ear was found, whereas SNR asymmetry was not, perhaps because of the small sample size. A nonsignificant trend toward larger responses in female babies was found; a result that is generally statistically significant in studies with larger samples. Latencies were found to be shorter in ABRs elicited in the right ear with amplitudes that were slightly bigger on average. An expected decrease in wave V latency was observed from birth to 1-month of age, but the finding was of borderline significance (p = 0.058).Conclusions: Onemonthis ashort time to judge developmentof the auditorysystem; however,theABR and TEOAE findings were consistent with current literature. We conclude that the auditory system data acquired for the Safe Passage Study, as refiected in the data obtained from this cohort of unexposed infants, is consistent with published reports of these auditory system measures in the general population.

KW - Auditory brainstem response

KW - Sudden infant death syndrome

KW - Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions

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U2 - 10.3766/jaaa.17043

DO - 10.3766/jaaa.17043

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 748

EP - 763

JO - Journal of the American Academy of Audiology

JF - Journal of the American Academy of Audiology

SN - 1050-0545

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ER -