Trends in prescribing pattern of opioid and benzodiazepine substitutes among Medicare part D beneficiaries from 2013 to 2018: A retrospective study

Aimalohi Esechie, Yong Fang Kuo, James S. Goodwin, Jordan Westra, Mukaila A. Raji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective Opioid and benzodiazepine co-prescribing is associated with a substantial increase in opioid overdose deaths. In this study, we examine the prescribing trends of substitutes of opioids and benzodiazepines alone or in combination, compared with opioids and benzodiazepines. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Data were collected using a 20% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2013 to 2018. Participants 4.1-4.3 million enrollees each year from 2013 to 2018. Intervention None. Primary outcome We employ a generalised linear mixed models to calculate ORs for opioid use, benzodiazepine or Z-drug (benzos/Z-drugs) use, opioid/benzos/Z-drugs 30-day use, gabapentinoid use and (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)) use, adjusted for the repeated measure of patient. We then created two models to calculate the ORs for each year and comparing to 2013. Results Opioid and benzos/Z-drugs use decreased by 2018 (aOR 0.626; 95% CI 0.622 to 0.630) comparing to 2013. We demonstrate a 36.3% and 9.9% increase rate of gabapentinoid and SSRI/SNRI use, respectively. Furthermore, combined gabapentinoid and SSRI/SNRI use increased in 2018 (aOR 1.422; 95% CI 1.412 to 1.431). Conclusion Little is known about the prescribing pattern and trend of opioid and benzodiazepine alternatives as analgesics. There is a modest shift from prescribing opioid and benzos/Z-drugs (alone or in combination) towards prescribing non-opioid analgesics-gabapentinoids with and without non-benzos/Z-drugs that are indicated for anxiety. It is unclear if this trend towards opioid/benzos/Z-drugs alternatives is associated with fewer drug overdose death, better control of pain and comorbid anxiety, and improved quality of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere053487
JournalBMJ open
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 18 2021

Keywords

  • Clinical pharmacology
  • Health policy
  • Pain management
  • Pain management
  • Protocols & guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Trends in prescribing pattern of opioid and benzodiazepine substitutes among Medicare part D beneficiaries from 2013 to 2018: A retrospective study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this