Trends in the Use of Benzodiazepines, Z-Hypnotics, and Serotonergic Drugs among US Women and Men before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Importance: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation measures have disrupted access to psychiatric medications, particularly for women. Objective: To assess the sex differences in trends in the prescribing of benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics and serotonergic (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), which are commonly prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from Clinformatics Data Mart, one of the largest commercial health insurance databases in the US. Enrollees 18 years or older were required to have complete enrollment in a given month during our study period, January 1, 2018, to March 31, 2021, to be included for that month. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prescription of a benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI. For each month, the percentage of patients with benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI prescriptions by sex was calculated. Results: The records of 17255033 adults (mean [SD] age, 51.7 [19.5] years; 51.3% female) were examined in 2018, 17340731 adults (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [19.7] years; 51.6% female) in 2019, 16916910 adults (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [19.8] years; 51.9% female) in 2020, and 15135998 adults (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [19.8] years; 52.5% female) in 2021. Compared with men, women had a higher rate of prescriptions for all 3 drugs classes and had larger changes in prescription rates over time. Benzodiazepine prescribing decreased from January 2018 (women: 5.61%; 95% CI, 5.60%-5.63%; men: 3.03%; 95% CI, 3.02%-3.04%) to March 2021 (women: 4.91%; 95% CI, 4.90%-4.93%; men: 2.66%; 95% CI, 2.65%-2.67%), except for a slight increase in April 2020 among women. Z-hypnotic prescribing increased from January 2020 for women (1.39%; 95% CI, 1.38%-1.40%) and February 2020 for men (0.97%; 95% CI, 0.96%-0.98%) to October 2020 (women: 1.46%; 95% CI, 1.46%-1.47%; men: 1.00%; 95% CI, 0.99%-1.01%). Prescribing of SSRIs and SNRIs increased from January 2018 (women: 12.77%; 95% CI; 12.75%-12.80%; men: 5.56%; 95% CI, 5.44%-5.58%) to April 2020 for men (6.73%; 95% CI, 6.71%-6.75%) and October 2020 for women (15.18%; 95% CI, 15.16%-15.21%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic onset was an increase in Z-hypnotic as well as SSRI and SNRI prescriptions in both men and women along with an increase in benzodiazepine prescriptions in women, findings that suggest a substantial mental health impact of COVID-19-associated mitigation measures..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2131012
JournalJAMA network open
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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