Trypanosoma cruzi induces the parp1/ap-1 pathway for upregulation of metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor β in macrophages: Role in cardiac fibroblast differentiation and fibrosis in chagas disease

Subhadip Choudhuri, Nisha Jain Garg

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a degenerative heart condition. In the present study, we investigated the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1/activator protein 1 (PARP1/AP-1) in upregulation of profibrotic macro-phages (Mφ) and subsequent development of cardiac fibrosis in CD. We used in vitro and in vivo models of T. cruzi infection and chemical and genetic inhibition of Parp1 to examine the molecular mechanisms by which Mφ might augment profibrotic events in CD. Cultured (RAW 264.7 and THP-1) Mφ infected with T. cruzi and primary cardiac and splenic Mφ of chronically infected mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression, activity, and release of metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9, and MMP12) and the cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Mφ release of MMPs and TGF-β signaled the cardiac fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation, as evidenced by a shift from S100A4 to alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. Incubation of infected Mφ with MMP2 and MMP9 inhibitors resulted in 60 to 74% decline in TGF-β release, and MMP9 and PARP1 inhibitors resulted in 57 to 70% decline in Mφ TGF-β-driven cardiac fibroblast differentiation. Likewise, histological studies showed a 12-to 16-fold increase in myocardial expression of CD68 (Mφ marker) and its colocalization with MMP9/TGF-β, galectin-3, and vimentin in wild-type mice with CD. In comparison, chronically infected Parp1-/- mice exhibited a >50% decline in myocardial levels of Mφ and associated fibrosis markers. Further study showed that PARP1 synergized with c-Fos and JunB AP-1 family members for transcriptional activation of profibrotic response after T. cruzi infection. We conclude that PARP1 inhibition offers a potential therapy for controlling the T. cruzi-driven fi-broblast differentiation in CD through modulation of the Mφ signaling of the AP-1– MMP9 –TGF-β pathway. IMPORTANCE Cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical manifestation of T. cruzi-driven CD. Recent studies have suggested the detrimental role of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation during cardiac remodeling in T. cruzi infection. Peripheral TGF-β levels are increased in clinically symptomatic CD patients over those in clinically asymptomatic seropositive individuals. We provide the first evidence that during T. cruzi infection, Mφ release of MMP2 and MMP9 plays an active role in activation of TGF-β signaling of ECM remodeling and cardiac fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We also determined that PARP1 signals c-Fos-and JunB-mediated AP-1 transcriptional activation of profi-brotic gene expression and demonstrated the significance of PARP1 inhibition in controlling chronic fibrosis in Chagas disease. Our study provides a promising therapeutic approach for controlling T. cruzi-driven fibroblast differentiation in CD by PARP1 inhibitors through modulation of the Mφ signaling of the AP-1–MMP9 –TGF-β pathway.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article numbere01853-20
    Pages (from-to)1-18
    Number of pages18
    JournalmBio
    Volume11
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

    Keywords

    • Cardiac fibrosis
    • Chagas disease
    • Metalloproteinases
    • PARP1/AP-1
    • Profibrotic macrophages
    • TGF-β
    • Trypanosoma cruzi

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Microbiology
    • Virology

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