Purpose: Ultrasound-guided compression of femoral pseudoaneurysms has often obviated the need for open operative repair. Increasing use of percutaneous interventional cardiac procedures has created pseudoaneurysms with a large-caliber arterial defect, often in patients who are placed immediately on anticoagulation therapy. This report describes the prospectively collected information from our vascular laboratory regarding ultrasound-guided compression of these pseudoaneurysms after cardiac procedures, both interventional and diagnostic. Methods: Since March 1994 prospective data collection for patients who have undergone pseudoaneurysm compression in our vascular laboratory has recorded information including cardiac procedure, size of catheter or sheath, coagulation parameters, pseudoaneurysm size and locations and time to compression. Forty-one patients underwent attempted ultrasound-guided pseudoaneurysm compression after cardiac procedures: 19 after cardiac catheterization alone, seven after angioplasty, one after atherectomy, two after insertion and subsequent removal of an intraaortic balloon pump, and 12 after coronary stenting. Results: Compression was successful overall in 88% of the patients (36 of 41). Successful compression of the pseudoaneurysm was seen in 95% after catheterization alone, 100% after angioplasty, 100% after atherectomy, and 100% after intraaortic balloon pumping, as compared with 67% after stenting (eight of 12 vs 28 of 29; p = 0.02). A sheath size of 9F or greater was a significant factor in predicting unsuccessful compression (three of eight vs two of 33; p = 0.04). Abnormal coagulation parameters were present in 20 of the 41 patients and was not significantly different in patients who were successfully or unsuccessfully treated (four of five vs 16 of 36; p = 0.40). Conclusions: Pseudoaneurysms after cardiac procedures and interventions can often be successfully compressed with an ultrasound-guided technique. The presence of abnormal coagulation parameters was not identified as a risk factor for compression failure and should not dissuade attempted compression. Stent placement was more likely to result in unsuccessful compression, and this appeared to be a result of the larger size of the arterial defect. Even in this settings compression achieved obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm in more than half of the patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine