Unravelling the potential of gut microbiota in sustaining brain health and their current prospective towards development of neurotherapeutics

Ankita Banerjee, Lilesh Kumar Pradhan, Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo, Kautilya Kumar Jena, Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Santosh Chauhan, Saroj Kumar Das

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Increasing incidences of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are being reported, but an insight into their pathology remains elusive. Findings have suggested that gut microbiota play a major role in regulating brain functions through the gut–brain axis. A unique bidirectional communication between gut microbiota and maintenance of brain health could play a pivotal role in regulating incidences of neurodegenerative diseases. Contrarily, the present life style with changing food habits and disturbed circadian rhythm may contribute to gut homeostatic imbalance and dysbiosis leading to progression of several neurological disorders. Therefore, dysbiosis, as a primary factor behind intestinal disorders, may also augment inflammation, intestinal and blood–brain barrier permeability through microbiota–gut–brain axis. This review primarily focuses on the gut–brain axis functions, specific gut microbial population, metabolites produced by gut microbiota, their role in regulating various metabolic processes and role of gut microbiota towards development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, several studies have reported a decrease in abundance of a specific gut microbial population and a corresponding increase in other microbial family, with few findings revealing some contradictions. Reports also showed that colonization of gut microbiota isolated from patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease leads to the development of enhance pathological outcomes in animal models. Hence, a systematic understanding of the dominant role of specific gut microbiome towards development of different neurodegenerative diseases could possibly provide novel insight into the use of probiotics and microbial transplantation as a substitute approach for treating/preventing such health maladies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2895-2910
Number of pages16
JournalArchives of Microbiology
Volume203
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Dysbiosis
  • Gut microbiota
  • Gut–brain axis
  • Microbial transplantation
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Probiotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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