Use of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Test Reduces Antifungal Medication Prescription for Suspected Monilial Diaper Dermatitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project

Julie Campbell, Valerie Macconnell, Lauren Sacco, Ramona Zuill, Elena Bosque, Pamela Harris-Haman, Ksenia Zukowsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Despite availability of rapid fungal potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests, many care providers rely on visual assessment to determine the diagnosis of monilial diaper dermatitis (MDD). Purpose: To determine whether a KOH test, when MDD is suspected, would result in more accurate diagnoses, with decreased antifungal medication prescription and exposure. Methods: Quality improvement project from 2016 through 2017 with protocol implemented in 2017 for treatment of MDD after positive KOH testing. If monilial rash suspected, after 2 negative KOH tests, then antifungal ordered (considered false negative). χ2 testing and cost determination were performed. Sample: Neonates in 2 level III neonatal intensive care units. Outcome Variables: KOH test results, use of antifungal medication, and cost. Results: The patient census included 1051 and 1015 patients in the year before and after the protocol initiation. The medical orders for antifungal medication decreased from 143 to 36 (P <.001; 95% odds ratio confidence interval, 2.24-4.38). There was a 75% reduction in both use and cost, as charged, of antifungal agents. Overall charges, including KOH test costs, decreased by 12%. Three infants received multiple negative KOH tests, then a positive one. These met the definition of false-negative tests, per protocol. There were no cases of fungal sepsis. Implications for Practice: Use of a quality improvement protocol, in which the use of KOH testing is required, before antifungal agents are prescribed, results in decreased exposure and costs. Implications for Research: To test the feasibility of bedside "point-of-care" KOH testing, and whether KOH testing and reduced antifungal medication use affects antimicrobial resistance or invasive fungal sepsis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvances in Neonatal Care
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Neonatal Intensive Care Units
Dermatitis
Quality Improvement
Prescriptions
Costs and Cost Analysis
Antifungal Agents
Sepsis
Censuses
Exanthema
Odds Ratio
potassium hydroxide
Newborn Infant
Confidence Intervals
Research

Keywords

  • candidiasis
  • diaper dermatitis
  • monilial
  • neonatal intensive care unit
  • potassium hydroxide test (KOH)
  • quality improvement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Use of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Test Reduces Antifungal Medication Prescription for Suspected Monilial Diaper Dermatitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit : A Quality Improvement Project. / Campbell, Julie; Macconnell, Valerie; Sacco, Lauren; Zuill, Ramona; Bosque, Elena; Harris-Haman, Pamela; Zukowsky, Ksenia.

In: Advances in Neonatal Care, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Despite availability of rapid fungal potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests, many care providers rely on visual assessment to determine the diagnosis of monilial diaper dermatitis (MDD). Purpose: To determine whether a KOH test, when MDD is suspected, would result in more accurate diagnoses, with decreased antifungal medication prescription and exposure. Methods: Quality improvement project from 2016 through 2017 with protocol implemented in 2017 for treatment of MDD after positive KOH testing. If monilial rash suspected, after 2 negative KOH tests, then antifungal ordered (considered false negative). χ2 testing and cost determination were performed. Sample: Neonates in 2 level III neonatal intensive care units. Outcome Variables: KOH test results, use of antifungal medication, and cost. Results: The patient census included 1051 and 1015 patients in the year before and after the protocol initiation. The medical orders for antifungal medication decreased from 143 to 36 (P <.001; 95{\%} odds ratio confidence interval, 2.24-4.38). There was a 75{\%} reduction in both use and cost, as charged, of antifungal agents. Overall charges, including KOH test costs, decreased by 12{\%}. Three infants received multiple negative KOH tests, then a positive one. These met the definition of false-negative tests, per protocol. There were no cases of fungal sepsis. Implications for Practice: Use of a quality improvement protocol, in which the use of KOH testing is required, before antifungal agents are prescribed, results in decreased exposure and costs. Implications for Research: To test the feasibility of bedside {"}point-of-care{"} KOH testing, and whether KOH testing and reduced antifungal medication use affects antimicrobial resistance or invasive fungal sepsis.",
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AU - Macconnell, Valerie

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