Validation of a Spanish translation of the CLOX for use in Hispanic samples: The Hispanic EPESE Study

Donald R. Royall, David V. Espino, Marsha J. Polk, Regina Verdeja, Sandra Vale, Hector Gonzales, Raymond R. Palmer, Kyriakos P. Markides

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    41 Scopus citations


    Objectives: Clock drawing tests (CDT) appear to be less vulnerable to linguistic, cultural, or educational bias than traditional dementia screening instruments. We investigated a Spanish language translation of CLOX: an executive CDT, in a community sample of Hispanic elders. Methods: In-home CLOX evaluations of 1309 Mexican-American elders were reviewed. Results: Both CLOX1 (an executive CDT) and CLOX2 (a constructional CDT) showed good internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha; both α = 0.82). Cultural-demographic variables had little effect on CLOX scores. Although language had a significant effect on CLOX1 failure rates, this was not mediated by age, education, acculturation or income. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Spanish CLOX can be validly administered to community-based Hispanic elder samples regardless of education or acculturation.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)135-141
    Number of pages7
    JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


    • Aged
    • Mental status testing
    • Mexican-American

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Geriatrics and Gerontology
    • Psychiatry and Mental health


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